This cross-sectional study involving a cohort of injection drug users (IDU) examined the relationship between cognitive factors (HIV treatment optimism, self-efficacy and knowledge of vaccine trial concepts) as well as risk factors for seroconversion, and willingness to participate (WTP) in a preventive phase 3 HIV vaccine trial. Willingness to participate overall was 56%. In a multivariate analysis, for a 20-unit increase in a 100-point composite scale, self-efficacy was positively related to WTP (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=1.95, 95% CI=1.40-2.70). HIV treatment optimism and knowledge of vaccine trial concepts were unrelated to WTP. Aboriginal ethnicity (AOR=3.47, 95% CI=1.68-7.18) and a higher educational level (>or=high school) (AOR=1.96, 95% CI=1.07-3.59) were positively related to WTP. This study provides information on WTP for an HIV vaccine trial. Limitations and future directions are also discussed.
There are gaps in our knowledge of the role cognitive factors play in determining people's willingness to participate (WTP) in therapeutic HIV vaccine trials. Using a cross-sectional study of HIV-positive injection drug users (IDU), we determined the role of three cognitive factors: HIV treatment optimism, self-efficacy beliefs, and knowledge of vaccine trial concepts in relation to WTP in a hypothetical phase 3 therapeutic HIV vaccine trial. WTP was 54%. Participants tended to be low in HIV treatment optimism (mean = 3.9/10), high in self-efficacy (mean = 79.8/100), and low in knowledge (mean = 4.1/10). Items pertaining to HIV treatment optimism and knowledge of HIV vaccine trial concepts were generally unrelated to WTP. An increase in self-efficacy had a statistically significant positive association with WTP (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.04-2.46, p
Cites: AIDS Care. 2000 Apr;12(2):171-610827857
Cites: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2000 Aug 15;24(5):451-711035616
To examine the independent effects of mood disorder, age, race/ethnicity, personal income, being a current student, having a regular medical doctor and substance use in relationship to condom use at last intercourse in a Canadian population stratified by sex.
We used Cycle 3.1 of the 2006 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS 3.1), a population-based, voluntary, cross-sectional survey of subjects ages 12-85 years. Data collection took place between January and December 2005. From the survey, a study sample of 20,975 people was drawn, consisting of individuals providing valid responses (yes/no) to mood disorder and last-time condom use. The question of sexual behaviours was asked only of those ages 15-49 years. Logistic regression was used to examine individual variables as potential determinants of last-time condom use stratified by sex.
The relationship between mood disorder and condom use was non-significant in both males (AOR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.70-1.04) and females (AOR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78-1.03). Increasing age was found to be inversely associated with last-time condom use in both males and females. Male factors significantly associated with last-time condom use were being of white ethnicity (AOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.64-0.79) and being a current student (AOR = 1.28, 95% CI =1.16-1.42). Female factors associated with last-time condom use were being of white ethnicity (AOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.63-0.79) and being a former drinker (AOR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.63-3.11).
Our results identify important determinants of last-time condom use in both males and females in the CCHS 3.1. These findings may have important implications for the devising and implementation of safe sex programs in a Canadian population ages 15-49 years.
To help address physician shortages in the underserved community of Prince George, Canada, the University of British Columbia (UBC) and various partners created the Northern Medical Program (NMP), a regional distributed site of UBC's medical doctor undergraduate program. Early research on the impacts of the NMP revealed a high degree of social connectedness. The objective of the present study was to explore the role of social capital in supporting the regional training site and the benefits accrued to a broad range of stakeholders and network partners.
In this qualitative study, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with community leaders in 2007. A descriptive content analysis based on analytic induction technique was employed. Carpiano's Bourdieu-based framework of 'neighbourhood' social capital was adapted to empirically describe how social capital was produced and mobilized within and among networks during the planning and implementation of the NMP.
Results from this study reveal that the operation of social capital and the related concept of social cohesion are multifaceted, and that benefits extend in many directions, resulting in somewhat unanticipated benefits for other key stakeholders and network partners of this medical education program. Participants described four aspects of social capital: (i) social cohesion; (ii) social capital resources; (iii) access to social capital; and (iv) outcomes of social capital.
The findings of this study suggest that the partnerships and networks formed in the NMP planning and implementation phases were the foundation for social capital mobilization. The use of Carpiano's spatially-bounded model of social capital was useful in this context because it permitted the characterization of relations and networks of a tight-knit community body. The students, faculty and administrators of the NMP have benefitted greatly from access to the social capital mobilized to make the NMP operational. Taking account of the dynamic and multifaceted operation of social capital helps one move beyond a view of geographic communities as simply containers or sinks of capital investment, and to appreciate the degree to which they may act as a platform for productive network formation and expansion.
To describe community leaders' perceptions regarding the impact of a fully distributed undergraduate medical education program on a small, medically underserved host community.
The authors conducted semistructured interviews in 2007 with 23 community leaders representing, collectively, the education, health, economic, media, and political sectors. They reinterviewed six participants from a pilot study (2005) and recruited new participants using purposeful and snowball sampling. The authors employed analytic induction to organize content thematically, using the sectors as a framework, and they used open coding to identify new themes. The authors reanalyzed transcripts to identify program outcomes (e.g., increased research capacity) and construct a list of quantifiable indicators (e.g., number of grants and publications).
Participants reported their perspectives on the current and anticipated impact of the program on education, health services, the economy, media, and politics. Perceptions of impact were overwhelmingly positive (e.g., increased physician recruitment), though some were negative (e.g., strains on health resources). The authors identified new outcomes and confirmed outcomes described in 2005. They identified 16 quantifiable indicators of impact, which they judged to be plausible and measureable.
Participants perceive that the regional undergraduate medical education program in their community has broad, local impacts. Findings suggest that early observed outcomes have been maintained and may be expanding. Results may be applicable to medical education programs with distributed or regional sites in similar rural, remote, and/or underserved regions. The areas of impact, outcomes, and quantifiable indicators identified will be of interest to future researchers and evaluators.
Community service-learning (CSL) has been proposed as one way to enrich medical and dental students' sense of social responsibility toward people who are marginalized in society.
We developed and implemented a new CSL option in the integrated medical/dental curriculum and assessed its educational impact.
Focus groups, individual open-ended interviews, and a survey were used to assess dental students', faculty tutors' and community partners' experiences with CSL.
CSL enabled a deeper appreciation for the vulnerabilities that people who are marginalized experience; students gained a greater insight into the social determinants of health and the related importance of community engagement; and they developed useful skills in health promotion project planning, implementation and evaluation. Community partners and faculty tutors indicated that equal partnership, greater collaboration, and a participatory approach to course development are essential to sustainability in CSL.
CSL can play an important role in nurturing a purposeful sense of social responsibility among future practitioners. Our study enabled the implementation of an innovative longitudinal course (professionalism and community service) in all 4 years of the dental curriculum.