This paper presents a review of injury dynamics of jaw fractures sustained by 1374 patients in the county of Stockholm during 1978-1980 = M1 (795 patients) and 1988-1990 = M2 (579 patients). The material comprised 1620 mandibular (M1 = 904, M2 = 716) and 439 maxillary (M1 = 249, M2 = 190) fractures. Forty-three per cent of the mandibular fractures and 40% of the maxillary fractures were single fractures in M1. The corresponding figures for M2 were 35% and 43%. During both periods the anatomical region most frequently fractured was the mandibular condyle (M1 = 35%, M2 = 29%). Violence was the cause in 39% of all fractures and 42% of the mandibular fractures (M2). This compared to M1 confirms other reports of altered trends in jaw fractures related to violence during the 1980's. The proportion of jaw fractures caused by traffic increased slightly between the periods.
This paper presents a retrospective review of jaw fractures sustained by 795 individuals in the county of Stockholm from 1978-80. The material comprised 904 mandibular and 249 maxillary fractures, a total of 1.153 fractures. The present part of the study concerns the relationship between etiologic factors and fracture location. Single fractures were noted in 43% of the mandibular fractures and in 4% of the maxillary fractures. The region most frequently fractured was the mandibular condyle (19% of all fractures). Violence was the etiologic in 42% of the total number of fractures and 47% of mandibular fractures. Compared to earlier reports, this seems to represent an increase over the last decades and probably reflects a general trend towards greater incidence of violence in society. Jaw fractures caused by traffic accidents accounted for 25% of all fractures and have decreased, probably as a result of the safety belt law of 1975 and better traffic security reforms. However, the severe Le Fort III fractures, combined with unconciousness and neurological injuries, are mainly the result of on traffic accidents. Falls accounted to 23% of the fractures, mostly localized to the mandible (81%).
The material comprised patients from the Stockholm region with jaws fractured during the years 1978-1980. It is the first time a total material is reported from this area. The following data were registered from case sheets and radiographs: age, sex and nationality, time of injury, admittance clinic, time spent in hospital, delay before treatment, aetiology of injury, associated consumption of alcohol or narcotics, localisation and number of fractures, additional injuries, treatment complications and cooperation.
Jaw fractures are less frequent in children than in adults. Very few studies exclusively on jaw fractures in children have been reported. From an investigation earlier published about jaw fractures in the country of Stockholm during the years 1978, 1979 and 1980 the authors have selected all cases of jaw fractures in children and adolescents below the age of 20. One hundred and seventy-one patients were studied, 128 boys and 43 girls. The ratio between boys and girls was 3:1. The material was separated into 4 age groups: 0-5, 6-10, 11-15 and 16-20 years. Sixty percent of the fractures were found in the older age groups. The majority of the injuries (62%) occurred during the period May-September, mostly on Fridays and Saturdays, in the younger groups in day time, in the older group during the evening. Fractures due to falling and playing dominated in the younger age groups, but decreased with age. Even if all bicycle traffic accidents were excluded, this vehicle caused 31% of all play and sporting accidents. The relatively percentage of traffic accidents increased steadily from 17 to 42% in the age groups. In the oldest age group violence exceeded traffic as the dominating cause. Le Fort fractures were not found in the younger groups, were fractures of the mandibular condyle and maxillary alveolar process dominated. An erupted tooth in the fracture line was registered in 43% of the cases. Most patients received outpatient treatment.
The material comprised patients from the Stockholm region with jaw fractures during 1978-1980 and 1988-1990. The study showed that there had been a decrease of jaw fractures in Stockholm during the two periods. Some of the findings indicated that the injuries had become more serious while this was contradicted by others. There was no conclusive evidence of a significant increase in either the number or severity of injuries due to violence or traffic accidents. On the contrary the study indicated that the decrease of jaw fractures had continued.
The results on the oral surgical management of patients with coagulation disorders at the Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm, during the period 1974-1985 have been compiled and compared with those obtained during the period 1965-1973. The present study included 380 tooth extractions performed in 250 treatment sessions in 107 patients. The incidence of postoperative bleeding and duration of hospitalization were reduced during the period of investigation.