Calcium urolithiasis is often associated with increased intestinal absorption and urine excretion of calcium, and has been suggested to result from increased vitamin D production. The role of the enzyme 1 alpha-hydroxylase, the rate-limiting step in active vitamin D production, was evaluated in 36 families, including 28 sibships with at least a pair of affected sibs, using qualitative and quantitative trait linkage analyses. Sibs with a verified calcium urolithiasis passage (n = 117) had higher 24-h calciuria (P = 0.03), oxaluria (P = 0.02), fasting and postcalcium loading urine calcium/creatinine (Ca/cr) ratios (P = 0.008 and P = 0.002, respectively), and serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels (P = 0.02) compared with nonstone-forming sibs (n = 120). Markers from a 9-centiMorgan interval encompassing the VDD1 locus on chromosome 12q13-14 (putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase) were analyzed in 28 sibships (146 sib pairs) of single and recurrent stone formers and in 14 sibships (65 sib pairs) with recurrent-only (> or = 3 episodes) stone-forming sibs. Two-point and multipoint analyses did not reveal excess in alleles shared among affected sibs at the VDD1 locus. Linkage of stone formation to the VDD1 locus could be excluded, respectively, with a lambda d of 2.0 (single and recurrent stone formers) and 3.25 (recurrent stone formers). Quantitative trait analyses revealed no evidence for linkage to 24-h calciuria and oxaluria, serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels, and Ca/cr ratios. This study shows absence of linkage of the putative 1 alpha-hydroxylase locus to calcium stone formation or to quantitative traits associated with idiopathic hypercalciuria. In addition, there is coaggregation of calciuric and oxaluric phenotypes with stone formation.
Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation took indoor and ambient air samples during the winter of 1992-93 in Fairbanks. The samples showed a significant increase in the level of benzene in the air between December and February. The highest levels occurred in indoor air and exceeded workplace standards in garages. These findings were corroborated by NIOSH and OSHA personal monitoring studies done at the same time in Fairbanks and by blood samples taken by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from workers exposed to gasoline in December and February. The blood samples showed a 300 percent increase in the amount of benzene in worker's blood after MTBE was taken out of gasoline. The most likely cause of this air pollution is gasoline evaporation and exhaust emissions. The benzene content of Alaska gasoline is 5 percent which is the highest in the nation. In view of these findings the Environmental Protection Agency is funding a new study of indoor air organic compounds including benzene in Anchorage, Alaska.
A family history increases the risk of kidney stone passage independent of dietary risk factors. However, the metabolic basis for familial aggregation of urolithiasis is unknown.
We evaluated metabolic risk factors in families with at least two sibs with a history of calcium stones. Sibs underwent outpatient evaluations simultaneously, including 24-hour urine collection and oral calcium loading. Phenotypes were compared between affected and unaffected sibs from the same sibship.
Eighty-three sibships comprising 388 sibs (212 affected sibs, 114 males and 98 females, and 176 unaffected sibs, 68 males and 108 females) from 71 families were analyzed. Daily urine calcium excretion was higher in affected compared with unaffected sibs (0.64 +/- 0.33 vs. 0.50 +/- 0.22 mmol Ca(2+)/mmol creatinine, respectively, P