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15 records – page 1 of 2.

Air pollution and health in three urban communities.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246878
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1979 Sep-Oct;34(5):360-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
F. Aubry
G W Gibbs
M R Becklake
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1979 Sep-Oct;34(5):360-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollutants, Occupational - analysis
Closing Volume
Female
Forced expiratory volume
Health
Humans
Male
Maximal Expiratory Flow Rate
Middle Aged
Quebec
Respiratory Function Tests
Respiratory Tract Diseases - epidemiology
Smoking
Sulfur Dioxide - analysis
Total lung capacity
Urban health
Vital Capacity
Abstract
A health study was conducted in three communities in the greater Montreal region; the first two were characterized by relatively high particulate and sulfur dioxide levels, respectively, and a third community without major industrial pollution. In each community, 300 men and women 45 to 64 yr of age were studied. Residents of the two more polluted communities exhibited a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and mean lung function evaluated by various tests was lower than in residents of the less polluted community. When intercity differences in age and smoking were accounted for, no statistically significant intercity differences in health status could be shown. Given the limitations of this study, the results provide no evidence to suggest that current Canadian standards for sulfur dioxide adequately protect human health as measured by the indices used in the study, for adults in the age range of 45 to 64 yr.
PubMed ID
496434 View in PubMed
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The assessment of exposure in terms of fibres.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature217636
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 1994 Aug;38(4):477-87, 409-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1994
Author
G W Gibbs
Source
Ann Occup Hyg. 1994 Aug;38(4):477-87, 409-10
Date
Aug-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Serpentine - adverse effects
Asbestosis
Canada
Dust
Environmental monitoring
Great Britain
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology
Mining
Occupational Exposure - analysis
Textile Industry
United States
Abstract
The membrane filter (MF) method for evaluating asbestos fibre concentrations was introduced in the 1960s. Before that time the midget impinger (MI) was used in North America, while the long running (LRTP) and regular thermal precipitator (TP) were used in the U.K. All studies from which estimates of long-term health risks can be derived (i.e. those with individual cumulative lifetime exposure estimates) were based on the now obsolete methods. The reliability of converting these indices of exposure to MF equivalent concentrations was reviewed. It was concluded that no overall single factor could be derived for the Quebec mining and milling industry. However, it has been possible to derive conversion factors at the individual mill and work area level. Applying these in one Quebec mortality study analysis based on all jobs held by persons in the cohort gave an overall MF/MI ratio of 3.6. An examination of the confidence intervals surrounding the Quebec data, ratios derived for other chrysotile mines by other investigators, and measurements of fibre concentrations in the 1970s suggest that this was probably not unreasonable. Side-by-side and other measurements were used to convert MI concentrations in the U.S. textile industry to MF fibre concentrations. While conversions involve considerable uncertainty, independent measurements of fibres in the lung tissues of workers from the U.S. textile plant and Quebec mills show that in lungs the ratios of the concentrations of chrysotile to those of tremolite are quite consistent with the ratio of assessed exposures to these fibres in the two industries. There is an apparently higher risk of mesothelioma in one Quebec mining area (Thetford Mines) than in another (Asbestos). A high concentration of fibrous tremolite has been found in the lungs of workers in Thetford. A method of evaluating the extent to which mesothelioma risk in the chrysotile mining industry might be explained by tremolite exposures was proposed. The slope of the lung cancer dose-response relationship for the textile industry is approximately 50 times that for the mining and milling industry. Available data on the length distributions of fibres from Quebec mines and mills (up to 5% > 5 microns) and the Charleston textile plant (up to 21% > 5 microns) and some marginal indication of longer fibres in tissues from Charleston workers suggest that further work specifically addressing differences in the size distributions of long fibres in these industries is needed.
PubMed ID
7978969 View in PubMed
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Chrysotile fibre concentration and lung cancer mortality: a preliminary report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246325
Source
IARC Sci Publ. 1980;(30):811-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
1980
Author
J C McDonald
G W Gibbs
F D Liddell
Source
IARC Sci Publ. 1980;(30):811-7
Date
1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Occupational - adverse effects
Asbestos - adverse effects - analysis
Dust - analysis
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Male
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Quebec
Risk
Smoking
Abstract
After checking on the accuracy of work histories and estimating prevailing fibre concentrations by relevant time and place, all 244 deaths from lung cancer (ICD 162-164) in the Quebec mortality cohort were compared with internal controls matched for date of birth, mining area and smoking habit. Further studies of other causes of death and of lung cancer with controls unmatched for smoking are in progress. In the meantime, we consider that a useful estimate of lung cancer risks is given by the equation: RR = 1 + 0.00038 (+/- 0.00013) fibres/ ml.yr.
PubMed ID
7228336 View in PubMed
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Dust exposure and mortality in chrysotile mining, 1910-75.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature246109
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1980 Feb;37(1):11-24
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1980
Author
J C McDonald
F D Liddell
G W Gibbs
G E Eyssen
A D McDonald
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1980 Feb;37(1):11-24
Date
Feb-1980
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents
Aged
Asbestos - adverse effects
Asbestosis - mortality
Cerebrovascular Disorders - mortality
Dust
Employment
Environmental Exposure
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Heart Diseases - mortality
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - mortality
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Neoplasms - mortality
Occupational Diseases - mortality
Quebec
Respiration Disorders - mortality
Smoking - complications
Time Factors
Abstract
We report a further follow-up of a birth cohort of 11 379 workers exposed to chrysotile. The cohort consisted of 10 939 men and 440 women, born 1891-1920, who had worked for at least a month in the mines and mills of Asbestos and Thetford Mines in Quebec. For all subjects, length of service and estimates of accumulated dust exposure were obtained, with a smoking history for the vast majority. Three methods of analysis, two based on the "man-years" methods, the other a "case-and-multiple-controls" approach, gave results consistent with one another and with previous analyses. By the end of 1975, 4463 men and 84 women had died. Among men, the overall excess mortality, 1926-75 was 2% at Asbestos and 10% at Thetford Mines, much the dustier region. The women, mostly employed at Asbestos, had a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) all causes, 1936-75) of 0.90. Analysis of deaths 20 years or more after first employment showed that in men with short service (less than five years) there was no discernible correlation with dust exposure. Among men employed at least 20 years, there were clear excesses in those exposed to the heaviest dust concentrations. Reanalysis in terms of exposure to age 45 showed definite and consistent trends for SMRs for total mortality, for lung cancer, and for pneumoconiosis to be higher the heavier the exposure. The response to increasing dose was effectively linear for lung cancer and for pneumoconiosis. Lung cancer deaths occurred in non-smokers, and showed a greater increase of incidence with increasing exposure than did lung cancer in smokers, but there was insufficient evidence to distinguish between multiplicative and additive risk models. There were no excess deaths from laryngeal cancer, but a clear association with smoking. Ten men and one woman died from pleural mesothelioma. If the only subjects studied had been the 1904 men with at least 20 years' employment in the lower dust concentrations, averaging 6.6 million particles per cubic foot (or about 20 fibres/cc), excess mortality would not have been considered statistically significant, except for pneumoconiosis. The inability of such a large epidemiological survey to detect increased risk at what, today, are considered unacceptable dust concentrations, and the consequent importance of exposure-response models are therefore emphasised.
Notes
Cites: Biometrics. 1969 Jun;25(2):339-555794104
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1971 Jun;22(6):677-865574010
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1972 Mar;24(3):189-975059627
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1974 Feb;28(2):61-84809914
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1974 Feb;28(2):69-714809915
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1975 May;30(5):266-71130842
Cites: Br J Prev Soc Med. 1976 Dec;30(4):225-301009272
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1977 Sep 15;20(3):323-31903186
Cites: Prev Med. 1977 Sep;6(3):426-42333420
Cites: J Occup Med. 1977 Nov;19(11):737-40915568
Cites: Lancet. 1978 Mar 4;1(8062):484-976030
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1964 Oct;21:304-714253230
PubMed ID
7370189 View in PubMed
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Dust exposure and mortality in chrysotile mining, 1910-75. 1980.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature219708
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Dec;50(12):1058-72
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1993
Author
J C McDonald
F D Liddell
G W Gibbs
G E Eyssen
A D McDonald
Source
Br J Ind Med. 1993 Dec;50(12):1058-72
Date
Dec-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asbestos, Serpentine
Asbestosis - history - mortality
Dust
History, 20th Century
Humans
Mining - history
Occupational Exposure - history
Quebec
Notes
Cites: Int J Cancer. 1977 Sep 15;20(3):323-31903186
Cites: Br J Prev Soc Med. 1976 Dec;30(4):225-301009272
Cites: Prev Med. 1977 Sep;6(3):426-42333420
Cites: J Occup Med. 1977 Nov;19(11):737-40915568
Cites: Lancet. 1978 Mar 4;1(8062):484-976030
Cites: Environ Res. 1978 Dec;17(3):340-6233818
Cites: Br J Ind Med. 1964 Oct;21:304-714253230
Cites: Biometrics. 1969 Jun;25(2):339-555794104
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1971 Jun;22(6):677-865574010
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1972 Mar;24(3):189-975059627
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1974 Feb;28(2):61-84809914
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1974 Feb;28(2):69-714809915
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 1975 May;30(5):266-71130842
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1976 Mar 25;294(13):687-9055969
Comment In: Occup Environ Med. 1994 Jun;51(6):4318044238
PubMed ID
8280637 View in PubMed
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Etiology of pleural calcification: a study of Quebec chrysotile asbestos miners and millers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature247417
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1979 Mar-Apr;34(2):76-83
Publication Type
Article
Author
G W Gibbs
Source
Arch Environ Health. 1979 Mar-Apr;34(2):76-83
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Asbestos - adverse effects
Calcinosis - etiology - genetics
Dust
Environmental Exposure
Geography
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mining
Occupational Diseases - etiology
Occupations
Pleural Diseases - etiology - genetics
Quebec
Abstract
A review of 15,689 chest radiographs of Quebec chrysotile miners and millers, representing the latest film prior to November 1, 1966, for all such persons ever x-rayed, identified 206 men with pleural calcification. Of these, 198 had worked in the Thetford Mines area, 6 at Asbestos, and 2 at St. Remi de Tingwick; 2.5%, 0.08%, and 1% of the films from these areas, respectively. A series of case-control studies revealed that pleural calcification was concentrated in men employed at a small group of mines in Thetford Mines and occurred more often among miners and maintenance personnel than among millers. Calcification was not related to past history of illness or injury, place of residence, or employment in other industries. The distribution of pleural calcification in this Quebec industry suggests that it is related to some characteristic of airborne dust or mineral closely associated with the chrysotile that is encountered during mining in Thetford Mines but not in other mining areas. Possible minerals include mica, talc, and breunnerite.
PubMed ID
434935 View in PubMed
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Fibre exposure and mortality from pneumoconiosis, respiratory and abdominal malignancies in chrysotile production in Quebec, 1926-75.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature240667
Source
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1984 Apr;13(2 Suppl):340-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1984
Author
F D Liddell
D C Thomas
G W Gibbs
J C McDonald
Source
Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1984 Apr;13(2 Suppl):340-4
Date
Apr-1984
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Abdominal Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Aged
Asbestos - adverse effects
Asbestosis - mortality
Dust - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - mortality
Male
Mining
Occupational Diseases - etiology - mortality
Quebec
Smoking
Abstract
To define the relationships between chrysotile exposure in fibre terms and death from specific cancers, and pneumoconiosis, all 11,379 persons born 1891-1920 who had worked in the asbestos mines and mills of Quebec for a month or more before 1967 were followed to the end of 1975. Among the 10,939 men, there had been 4,463 deaths, 634 from these causes. For each death, referents were randomly selected from among men in the cohort born in the same year as the case and known to have survived to a greater age. For each case and his referents, exposures accumulated up to nine years before the death of the case had been obtained as (million particles per cubic foot) x years. Fibre counts were estimated for each work-place so that all exposures could be expressed in (fibres/ml) x years. The ratio of the means for all 2,586 accumulated exposures was 3.46 (f/ml)/mpcf. Relative Risks (RR) were related to exposure by matched analysis. For pneumoconiosis and lung cancer, RR = 1 + b.(f/ml).y fitted well, with b estimated as 0.00647 and 0.00038, respectively. For cancers of upper and of lower G.I. tract, severe exposure was associated with elevated RRs, but rather unclearly. For other abdominal cancers, and laryngeal cancer, risks and exposure were not positively associated. The asbestos-smoking interaction in lung cancer was closer to multiplicative than to additive.
PubMed ID
6497336 View in PubMed
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15 records – page 1 of 2.