By means of a glycaemic response study the effect on postprandial blood glucose of a standard hamburger was compared with an ordinary, isocaloric cheese sandwich. Twenty five teenage insulin dependent diabetic patients participated; patients with preprandial blood glucose above 12 mmol/l were excluded. On different days at 3.30 p.m. they consumed a standard hamburger (McDonald's) and an isocaloric cheese sandwich. Blood glucose was measured every half hour during the 3 1/2 hour observation period. The glycaemic response and peak postprandial blood glucose were calculated, and no significant differences in either indices were observed (p greater than 0.05). It is concluded that hamburgers of this specific composition can substitute snack meals in the diabetic diet without risk to the metabolic control.
To evaluate the data quality in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP) and the Prescription Registry in the country of Northern Jutland (487,000 inhabitants) concerning insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and insulin treated diabetes mellitus, a comparison between data in the two registries was made. From the Regional Hospital Registry in the County of Northern Jutland, containing discharge diagnoses from all admissions to hospitals in the county, we identified all patients with the IDDM diagnosis between 1987 and 1993. From the Regional Prescription Registry all insulin prescriptions taken up at pharmacies in the county in 1993 were identified. All persons were identified by their individual identification number (CPR-number), and a record linkage between the two data sources was made. The predictive value of an IDDM-registration in the DNRP was 96% and the corresponding completeness 91%. In the Prescription Registry the completeness was 96%. Both registries seem to be valuable study bases for epidemiological research in diabetes mellitus.
BACKGROUND: A recent observational study suggested that the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors protects against cancer in general and against breast and female reproductive tract cancers in particular. To explore these hypotheses, the authors examined cancer risk among users of ACE inhibitors in North Jutland County, Denmark. METHODS: Using data from the population-based Prescription Database of North Jutland County and the Danish Cancer Registry, cancer incidence among 17,897 individuals prescribed ACE inhibitors was compared with expected incidence based on county specific cancer rates during an 8-year study period with a mean follow-up of 3.7 years. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated for cancers overall and at selected sites. In addition, the authors performed a direct comparison of users of ACE inhibitors with users of beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers (n = 47,579 individuals) by means of a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: Overall, 909 cancer cases were observed among users of ACE inhibitors, with 846 expected based on general population rates, yielding an SIR of 1.07 (95% CI, 1.01-1.15). No risk reductions were observed for cancers of the breast and female reproductive tract, whereas nonsignificantly decreased SIRs were observed for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, and liver. Cancer of the kidney was found in significant excess (SIR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1-2.2). Stratification by duration of follow-up or number of prescriptions revealed no apparent trends, except for a tendency toward decreasing risk with increasing length of follow-up for smoking-related cancers. The direct comparison of users of ACE inhibitors with users of beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers yielded results comparable to those derived from the comparison with the general population, with a hazard ratio for cancer overall of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.93-1.09). CONCLUSIONS: This large, population-based cohort study did not confirm a protective effect of ACE inhibitors on the development of cancer. The excess of kidney cancer observed likely reflects a correlation between hypertension and kidney cancer. Further investigation is needed to evaluate the long-term effects of ACE inhibitors beyond the observation period of this and previous studies. Also, the suggestive evidence of decreased risks for upper digestive system cancers and for smoking-related cancers over time may warrant additional investigation.
The aim of the study was to assess the effect of pre-hospital antibiotic treatment given by general practitioners to patients with meningococcal disease. It was carried out as a 16-year population-based historical follow-up study based on referral letters and hospital records in the County of North Jutland, Denmark, and included 320 patients with meningococcal disease, of whom 302 were examined by a general practitioner before admission to hospital. The main outcome measure was death. We found that 44 patients (14.6%) were given antibiotic treatment by the referring general practitioner. Nine of these (20.5%) died, compared with 16 (6.2%) patients who did not receive pre-hospital antibiotic treatment. The presence of skin bleeding, petechiae and impaired consciousness were strongly associated with case fatality. Even after adjustment for these variables the odds ratio for death in patients treated with antibiotics was high (3.2; 95% CI 0.9-10.6). In the 15 patients with skin bleeding (ecchymoses, suggillations) the case fatality rate was 100% in patients treated with antibiotics, and 50% in patients who did not receive antibiotics before hospitalization. It is concluded that pre-hospital treatment is mainly given to the most severe cases with expected high case fatality, and this confounding by indication was probably not fully adjusted for with the available data. The results contradict previous findings and provide reason to doubt the benefit of pre-hospital antibiotic treatment in patients with meningococcal disease.
Concerns have been raised as to the safety of using pivaloyl-conjugated beta-lactam antibiotics during pregnancy as they cause carnitine depletion. Restrictions have been recommended in some Scandinavian countries as drug-induced carnitine depletion could constitute a risk to the developing foetus. One of these drugs, pivmecillinam, is widely used against urinary tract infections but few data exist concerning its safety in pregnancy. In a cohort study, we compared the prevalences of congenital abnormalities, pre-term delivery, low birth weight, low Apgar score and neonatal hypoglycaemia in the offspring of 414 women who had at least 1 prescription for pivmecillinam redeemed during pregnancy with those of the offspring of 7472 pregnant women for whom no drugs were prescribed during pregnancy. The prevalence of congenital abnormalities was 1.7% among 119 infants exposed in the first trimester and 3.7% among the reference group [odds ratio (OR) 0.46; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11-1.86]. We found no significantly increased risks in either pre-term delivery (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.11-1.86), low birth weight (OR 0.57, 95%, CI 0.23-1.41), low Apgar score (OR 2.32, 95% CI 0.30-18.16) or hypoglycaemia (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.18-3.00) that were induced by carnitine depletion. No significantly increased risk in adverse birth outcome was therefore found in women treated with pivmecillinam.
The aim of the study was to examine fetal risk associated with intrauterine exposure to fluoroquinolones. By using on record linkage between a Prescription Database and the Birth Registry in Denmark, the offspring of 57 users of fluoroquinolones and of 17259 patients who had no prescriptive medication during pregnancy, were compared in a cohort study. Among the users, the prevalence rate ratios of congenital abnormalities, preterm birth and low birth weight were 1.30 (95% CI: 0.30-5.30),1.53 (95% CI: 0.62-3.80) and 1.17 (95% CI: 0.15-8.90), respectively. The risk of congenital abnormalities among users of fluoroquinolones during pregnancy was close to unity. Despite these limitations of statistical analysis the study suggested that the use of fluoroquinolones during pregnancy may not be a major risk factor to the foetus.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the risk of congenital abnormalities, preterm birth and low birth weight after exposure to phenoxymethylpenicillin in utero. METHODS: A population-based follow-up study in the County of North Jutland, Denmark. Birth outcome for 1886 women, who redeemed prescriptions for phenoxymethylpenicillin during pregnancy was compared with the outcome for 9263 women who did not redeem any prescription during pregnancy. RESULTS: The prevalence of congenital abnormalities in 654 users of phenoxymethylpenicillin with or without other drugs during the first trimester was 4.6% compared with 3.6% in the reference group, giving a prevalence odds ratio of 1.25 (95% CI: 0.84-1.86). The prevalence odds ratio was 1.35 (95% CI: 0.59-3.08) in 131 women who were exposed to phenoxymethylpenicillin only. Nine cardiovascular abnormalities were found, giving an adjusted prevalence odds ratio of 1.74 (95% CI: 0.83-3.65). The prevalence odds ratios of preterm birth and low birth weight were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.66-1.04) and 1.02 (95% CI: 0.71-1.47), respectively. CONCLUSION: We found no significantly increased risk of congenital abnormalities, including cardiovascular abnormalities, preterm birth, or low birth weight in women who purchased phenoxymethylpenicillin during pregnancy.
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and puerperium are associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Low-molecular-weight heparin is the anticoagulant of choice in pregnant women because, unlike warfarin, it does not cross the placenta. However, there are limited data on the risk of adverse birth outcomes following use of low-molecular-weight heparin in pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study to examine the safety of low-molecular-weight heparin use in pregnancy using data from the Pharmacoepidemiological Prescription Database, The Danish Medical Birth Registry and the Regional Hospital Discharge Registry in North Jutland County, Denmark. The birth outcomes in a cohort of 66 pregnant women treated with low-molecular-weight heparin between 1991-98 were compared with the birth outcomes of 17,259 pregnant women who did not receive any prescriptive drugs during pregnancy. RESULTS: No increased risk of malformations, low birth weight or stillbirth was found. However, an increased risk of pre-term delivery was found (odds ratio: 2.11, 95%, confidence interval: 0.96-4.65), which could reflect inherited thrombophilia as an indication of low-molecular-weight heparin. CONCLUSION: We have provided additional evidence of the safety of low-molecular-weight heparin use in pregnancy.
Ca2+ channel blockers may cause cancer by inhibiting apoptosis or reducing intracellular Ca2+ in certain tissues. Recent findings suggest that drug users are at increased risk for cancer in general and for colon cancer in particular. We conducted a study in one Danish county of 17911 patients who received at least one prescription of Ca2+ channel blockers between 1 January 1991 and 31 December 1993. The patients were identified from records in the National Health Insurance Program, which refunds part of the price of such drugs. Cancer occurrence and rate were determined by use of the files of the Danish Cancer Registry and compared with county-specific incidence rates for various categories of cancer. During the follow-up period of up to 3 years, 412 cancers were observed among users of Ca2+ channel blockers, compared with 414 expected, to yield an age- and sex-standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.00 (95% confidence interval, 0.90 to 1.10). There was no indication of an excess risk in the subgroup of likely long-term users or users of specific drugs. The SIR of colon cancer, a site of a priori interest, was 0.8 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 1.1) on the basis of 34 cases. Although the results are reassuring, the lack of association could reflect the relatively short follow-up after registration in the prescription database. Continued monitoring of cancer risk is planned.