This investigation was undertaken to study the associations of the polymorphic variants of the HLA-DRBI and HLA-DQB1 loci with the development of cystic echinococcosis in children. The material for the investigation was collected from 57 children admitted for surgery to the clinic of the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Orthopedics, and Anesthesiology, Bashkir State Medical University (Ufa). The PROTRANS kit (Germany) was used to isolate DNA samples from peripheral venous blood served as an object of the investigations. HLA specificities were typed by polymerase chain reaction. Molecular genetic studies established the association of DRB1*07, DQB1*0.9, DQB1*02 specificities with the increased risk of cystic echinococcosis in children. The echinococcosis cyst suppuration-complicated course of the disease was found to be more frequently encountered in DQB1*02 and DRB1*03 allele carriers.
Nine larvocysts of Echinococcus granulosus isolated from nine patients and one cyst derived from a naturally infested cattle have been examined. Genomic typing was carried out in order to identify strains of E. granulosus. All DNA samples were shown to have the same genotype, E. granulosus G1.
The topicality of the problem associated with echinococcosis granulosus in the South Urals is determined by its wide spread and a considerable economic damage made to this region by this invasion. The study was undertaken to reveal the intraspecific affiliation of Echinococcus granulosus that induces hydatid disease in the population of the South Urals. Samples for studies were taken from the fertile larval cysts obtained during intraoperative intervention in patients with hydatid disease. As morphological criteria for differentiation, the authors examined the proboscis uncuses of protoscolexes. For E. granulosus genomic typing, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of DNA synthesis was used, as described by Gasser (1998). As a DNA marker, the authors used a fragment of the mitochondrial gene encoding for the first subunit of cytochome-C-oxidase. The DNA fragments obtained by PCR from 9 isolated underwent the direct enzyme dideoxy-sequencing test (Senger, 1977). As a result, the causative agent of echinococcosis granulosis was first identified in the patient of the South Urals. In children and adults, the clinical form of the disease is caused by E. granulosus with the genotype G - common, that of domestic sheep. Comparative analysis of molecular data revealed the presence of genotype G1 variations circulating in the South Urals homologous to the sequences recorded in the GenBank under numbers U50464 and DQ109036.
According to official statistics, in the Republic of Bashkortostan (RB) since 1991 there is noted the increase in the number of patients with cystic echinococcosis. In 2012, the number of recorded cases increased by 55.3% if compared with 2007. In the areas of RB, where there was observed the high index of population morbidity rate, there was noted the extensive growth of the infestation in sheep. The analysis of the landscape-climatic and sanitary characteristics of the territory of the RB, as well as population economic activity revealed a definite relationship between them and the spread of echinococcosis. The performed survey of rural residents of RB showed that the population is poorly informed about the factors of transmission and ways of infection by echinococcosis. Out of respondents 73% were wrong in determining factors of transmission of infection, 34% admitted irregularities in the disposal of slaughtering condemned products. Fully correct answers were given only by 9% of respondents. The research of fruitfulness of hydatid bubbles and viability of Protoscolexes revealed that the effect of hot water (t = 90-100 Â° C) is effective for disinfecting of invasive origins of larvocysts. Due to the low level of awareness of the population there is needed an active health education work on effective measures to prevent the spread of echinococcosis in RB--the prevention of feeding dogs with raw slaughtering waste and decontamination in the private courtyard slaughtering condemned products with the hot water.