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Antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a longitudinal modeling study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144431
Source
Diabetes Care. 2010 Jul;33(7):1471-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2010
Author
Mika Kivimäki
Adam G Tabák
Debbie A Lawlor
G David Batty
Archana Singh-Manoux
Markus Jokela
Marianna Virtanen
Paula Salo
Tuula Oksanen
Jaana Pentti
Daniel R Witte
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. m.kivimaki@ucl.ac.uk
Source
Diabetes Care. 2010 Jul;33(7):1471-6
Date
Jul-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antidepressive Agents - therapeutic use
Depressive Disorder - drug therapy - epidemiology
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - epidemiology - psychology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology - psychology
Odds Ratio
Risk factors
Abstract
To examine antidepressant use before and after the diagnosis of diabetes.
This study was a longitudinal analysis of diabetic and nondiabetic groups selected from a prospective cohort study of 151,618 men and women in Finland (the Finnish Public Sector Study, 1995-2005). We analyzed the use of antidepressants in those 493 individuals who developed type 2 diabetes and their 2,450 matched nondiabetic control subjects for each year during a period covering 4 years before and 4 years after the diagnosis. For comparison, we undertook a corresponding analysis on 748 individuals who developed cancer and their 3,730 matched control subjects.
In multilevel longitudinal models, the odds ratio for antidepressant use in those who developed diabetes was 2.00 (95% CI 1.57-2.55) times greater than that in nondiabetic subjects. The relative difference in antidepressant use between these groups was similar before and after the diabetes diagnosis except for a temporary peak in antidepressant use at the year of the diagnosis (OR 2.66 [95% CI 1.94-3.65]). In incident cancer case subjects, antidepressant use substantially increased after the cancer diagnosis, demonstrating that our analysis was sensitive for detecting long-term changes in antidepressant trajectories when they existed.
Awareness of the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes may temporarily increase the risk of depressive symptoms. Further research is needed to determine whether more prevalent use of antidepressants noted before the diagnosis of diabetes relates to effects of depression, side effects of antidepressant use, or a common causal pathway for depression and diabetes.
Notes
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Cites: Curr Diabetes Rev. 2007 Nov;3(4):252-918220683
Cites: Psychosom Med. 2001 Jul-Aug;63(4):619-3011485116
Cites: J Clin Psychiatry. 2003;64 Suppl 8:22-912892538
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Cites: Arch Intern Med. 2004 May 10;164(9):1010-415136311
Cites: JAMA. 1983 Feb 11;249(6):751-76823028
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2000 Jul;23(7):934-4210895843
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2001 Jun;24(6):1069-7811375373
Cites: Am J Psychiatry. 2010 May;167(5):580-820123914
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2010 Feb;33(2):298-30319918011
Cites: Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct;32(10):1867-919592627
Cites: Chest. 2009 Jul;136(1):130-619318680
Cites: JAMA. 2008 Jun 18;299(23):2751-918560002
PubMed ID
20368411 View in PubMed
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Association of mental disorders in early adulthood and later psychiatric hospital admissions and mortality in a cohort study of more than 1 million men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature121887
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Aug;69(8):823-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Catharine R Gale
G David Batty
David P J Osborn
Per Tynelius
Elise Whitley
Finn Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
MRC Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, Southampton, England, UK.
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Aug;69(8):823-31
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Cohort Studies
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Health Status Disparities
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Hospitals, Psychiatric - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - mortality - psychology
Mortality, Premature
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Severity of Illness Index
Sweden - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Mental disorders have been associated with increased mortality, but the evidence is primarily based on hospital admissions for psychoses. The underlying mechanisms are unclear.
To investigate whether the risks of death associated with mental disorders diagnosed in young men are similar to those associated with admission for these disorders and to examine the role of confounding or mediating factors.
Prospective cohort study in which mental disorders were assessed by psychiatric interview during a medical examination on conscription for military service at a mean age of 18.3 years and data on psychiatric hospital admissions and mortality during a mean 22.6 years of follow-up were obtained from national registers.
Sweden.
A total of 1,095,338 men conscripted between 1969 and 1994.
All-cause mortality according to diagnoses of schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychoses, bipolar or depressive disorders, neurotic and adjustment disorders, personality disorders, and alcohol-related or other substance use disorders at conscription and on hospital admission.
Diagnosis of mental disorder at conscription or on hospital admission was associated with increased mortality. Age-adjusted hazard ratios according to diagnoses at conscription ranged from 1.81 (95% CI, 1.54-2.10) (depressive disorders) to 5.55 (95% CI, 1.79-17.2) (bipolar disorders). The equivalent figures according to hospital diagnoses ranged from 5.46 (95% CI, 5.06-5.89) (neurotic and adjustment disorders) to 11.2 (95% CI, 10.4-12.0) (other substance use disorders) in men born from 1951 to 1958 and increased in men born later. Adjustment for early-life socioeconomic status, body mass index, and blood pressure had little effect on these associations, but they were partially attenuated by adjustment for smoking, alcohol intake, intelligence, educational level, and late-life socioeconomic status. These associations were not primarily due to deaths from suicide.
The increased risk of premature death associated with mental disorder is not confined to those whose illness is severe enough for hospitalization or those with psychotic or substance use disorders.
PubMed ID
22868936 View in PubMed
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Body mass index and attempted suicide: Cohort study of 1,133,019 Swedish men.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature100419
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 15;172(8):890-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-15-2010
Author
G David Batty
Elise Whitley
Mika Kivimäki
Per Tynelius
Finn Rasmussen
Author Affiliation
Medical Research Council Social and Public Health Sciences Unit, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 15;172(8):890-9
Date
Oct-15-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Sweden
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Depression - complications
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Male
Proportional Hazards Models
Socioeconomic Factors
Suicide - statistics & numerical data
Suicide, Attempted - statistics & numerical data
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
Associations between body mass index (BMI) and attempted (nonfatal) suicide have recently been reported. However, the few existing studies are relatively small in scale, the majority cross-sectional, and results contradictory. The authors have explored BMI-attempted suicide associations in a large cohort of 1,133,019 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1976, with BMI measured in early adulthood. During a mean follow-up of 23.9 years, a total of 18,277 (1.6%) men had at least 1 hospital admission for attempted suicide. After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a stepwise, linear decrease in attempted suicide with increasing BMI across the full BMI range (per standard deviation increase in BMI, hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.94). Analyses excluding men with depression at baseline were essentially identical to those based on the complete cohort. In men free from depression at baseline, controlling for subsequent depression slightly attenuated the raised risk of attempted suicide, particularly in lower weight men. This study suggests that lower weight men have an increased risk of attempted suicide and that associations may extend into the "normal" BMI range.
Notes
RefSource: Am J Epidemiol. 2010 Oct 15;172(8):900-4; discussion 905-6
PubMed ID
20829269 View in PubMed
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Body Mass Index and Depressive Symptoms: Testing for Adverse and Protective Associations in Two Twin Cohort Studies.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286591
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2016 Aug;19(4):306-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Markus Jokela
Venla Berg
Karri Silventoinen
G David Batty
Archana Singh-Manoux
Jaakko Kaprio
George Davey Smith
Mika Kivimäki
Source
Twin Res Hum Genet. 2016 Aug;19(4):306-11
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Cohort Studies
Depressive Disorder - genetics - physiopathology
Diseases in Twins
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Genetic
Twins, Dizygotic - genetics
Twins, Monozygotic - genetics
United States
Abstract
Studies have suggested both adverse and protective associations of obesity with depressive symptoms. We examined the contribution of environmental and heritable factors in this association. Participants were same-sex twin pairs from two population-based twin cohort studies, the Older Finnish Twin Cohort (n = 8,215; mean age = 44.1) and the US Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS; n = 1,105; mean age = 45.1). Body mass index (BMI) was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Depressive symptoms were assessed using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI; Finnish Twin Cohort), and by negative and positive affect scales (MIDUS). In the Finnish Twin Cohort, higher BMI was associated with higher depressive symptoms in monozygotic (MZ) twins (B = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.0, 3.0) and dizygotic (DZ) twins (B = 1.17, 0.5, 1.9) with BMI >22. This association was observed in within-pair analysis in DZ twins (B = 1.47, CI = 0.4, 2.6) but not in within-pair analysis of MZ twins (B = 0.03, CI = -1.9, 2.0). Consistent with the latter result, a bivariate genetic model indicated that the association between higher BMI and higher depressive symptoms was largely mediated by genetic factors. The results of twin-pair analysis and bivariate genetic model were replicated in the MIDUS sample. These findings suggest an association between obesity and higher depressive symptoms, which is largely explained by shared heritable biological mechanisms.
PubMed ID
27055784 View in PubMed
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Childhood intelligence in relation to adult coronary heart disease and stroke risk: evidence from a Danish birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29377
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2005 Nov;19(6):452-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2005
Author
G David Batty
Erik L Mortensen
Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen
Merete Osler
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. david-b@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk
Source
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2005 Nov;19(6):452-9
Date
Nov-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Birth weight
Cerebrovascular Accident - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Cohort Studies
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - psychology
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Intelligence
Male
Odds Ratio
Psychometrics
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk Assessment - methods
Social Class
Abstract
While recent studies have reported an inverse relation between childhood intelligence test scores and all-cause mortality in later life, the link with disease-specific outcomes has been rarely examined. Furthermore, the potential confounding effect of birthweight and childhood social circumstances is unknown. We investigated the relation of childhood intelligence with coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke risk in a cohort of 6910 men born in 1953 in the Copenhagen area of Denmark. Events were ascertained from 1978 to 2000 using a cause-of-death register and hospital discharge records. There were 150 CHD (19 fatal; 131 non-fatal) and 93 stroke (4 fatal; 89 non-fatal) events during follow-up into mid-life. Childhood intelligence was inversely related to CHD with the highest rate apparent in adults with low childhood test scores (HR(lowest vs. highest quartile), 2.70; 95% confidence interval: 1.60, 4.57; P(trend) = 0.0001). After adjustment for paternal social class and birthweight, this association was attenuated only marginally. There was little evidence of a IQ-stroke relationship. The cognitive characteristics captured by IQ testing in the present study, such as communication and problem solving ability, appear to be associated with risk of CHD. Health promotion specialists and clinical practitioners may wish to consider these skills in their interactions with the general public. Replication of these results using studies which hold data on intelligence and socio-economic position across the life course is required.
PubMed ID
16269073 View in PubMed
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Childhood intelligence predicts hospitalization with personality disorder in adulthood: evidence from a population-based study in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148068
Source
J Pers Disord. 2009 Oct;23(5):535-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Paul Moran
Britt A F Klinteberg
G David Batty
Denny Vågerö
Author Affiliation
Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, London SE5 8AF, UK. paul.moran@iop.kcl.ac.uk
Source
J Pers Disord. 2009 Oct;23(5):535-40
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Anxiety - psychology
Female
Hospitalization
Humans
Intelligence
Intelligence Tests
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Personality Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Predictive value of tests
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Although low pre-morbid IQ is an established risk factor for severe mental illness, its association with personality disorder (PD) is unclear. We set out to examine whether there is a prospective association between childhood intelligence and PD in adulthood. Using a population-based prospective cohort study, we linked childhood IQ scores to routinely collected hospital discharge records in adulthood. Lower IQ scores were related to higher risk of being hospitalized with a PD across the full range of IQ scores, (odds ratio per one SD increase in IQ was 0.60; 95% CI: 0.49-0.75; p(trend) = 0.001). Adjusting for potential confounding variables had virtually no impact. We conclude that low childhood IQ predicts hospitalization with PD and may be an important factor in the development of PD.
PubMed ID
19817633 View in PubMed
Less detail

Childhood IQ in relation to later psychiatric disorder: evidence from a Danish birth cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature29567
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;187:180-1
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2005
Author
G David Batty
Erik L Mortensen
Merete Osler
Author Affiliation
Department of Social Medicine, Institute of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark. david-b@msoc.mrc.gla.ac.uk
Source
Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Aug;187:180-1
Date
Aug-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Child
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Intelligence
Intelligence Tests
Male
Mental Disorders - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Abstract
Studies examining the relationship between early-life IQ and the risk of subsequent psychiatric disorder in adulthood are scarce. In the present investigation, the childhood IQ scores of 7022 singleton-born Danish males were linked to psychiatric hospital discharge records in adulthood. IQ scores were inversely related to the risk of total psychiatric illness, with the highest levels apparent in the lowest scoring IQ group (HRlowest quintile v. highest=1.70, 95% CI 1.34-2.14). Adjusting for paternal occupational social class and birth weight had only a small attenuating effect. Low childhood IQ may have an aetiological role in the development of adult total psychiatric disorder.
PubMed ID
16055831 View in PubMed
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Development and validation of a risk prediction model for work disability: multicohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301643
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 10 19; 7(1):13578
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Studies
Date
10-19-2017
Author
Jaakko Airaksinen
Markus Jokela
Marianna Virtanen
Tuula Oksanen
Jaana Pentti
Jussi Vahtera
Markku Koskenvuo
Ichiro Kawachi
G David Batty
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. jaakko.airaksinen@ttl.fi.
Source
Sci Rep. 2017 10 19; 7(1):13578
Date
10-19-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Validation Studies
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Chronic Disease
Cohort Studies
Disabled Persons
Employment
Female
Finland
Health status
Humans
Life Style
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Theoretical
Abstract
Work disability affects quality of life, earnings, and opportunities to contribute to society. Work characteristics, lifestyle and sociodemographic factors have been associated with the risk of work disability, but few multifactorial algorithms exist to identify individuals at risk of future work disability. We developed and validated a parsimonious multifactorial score for the prediction of work disability using individual-level data from 65,775 public-sector employees (development cohort) and 13,527 employed adults from a general population sample (validation cohort), both linked to records of work disability. Candidate predictors for work disability included sociodemographic (3 items), health status and lifestyle (38 items), and work-related (43 items) variables. A parsimonious model, explaining?>?99% of the variance of the full model, comprised 8 predictors: age, self-rated health, number of sickness absences in previous year, socioeconomic position, chronic illnesses, sleep problems, body mass index, and smoking. Discriminative ability of a score including these predictors was high: C-index 0.84 in the development and 0.83 in the validation cohort. The corresponding C-indices for a score constructed from work-related predictors (age, sex, socioeconomic position, job strain) were 0.79 and 0.78, respectively. It is possible to identify reliably individuals at high risk of work disability by using a rapidly-administered prediction score.
Notes
ErratumIn: Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 16;8(1):17224 PMID 30442992
PubMed ID
29051618 View in PubMed
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Does education confer a culture of healthy behavior? Smoking and drinking patterns in Danish twins.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139540
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jan 1;173(1):55-63
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2011
Author
Wendy Johnson
Kirsten Ohm Kyvik
Erik L Mortensen
Axel Skytthe
G David Batty
Ian J Deary
Author Affiliation
Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, Universityof Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. wendy.johnson@ed.ac.uk
Source
Am J Epidemiol. 2011 Jan 1;173(1):55-63
Date
Jan-1-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Alcohol drinking - epidemiology
Denmark - epidemiology
Diseases in Twins - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Health Behavior
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Retrospective Studies
Smoking - epidemiology
Twins - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
More education is associated with healthier smoking and drinking behaviors. Most analyses of effects of education focus on mean levels. Few studies have compared variance in health-related behaviors at different levels of education or analyzed how education impacts underlying genetic and environmental sources of health-related behaviors. This study explored these influences. In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21,522 members of the Danish Twin Registry, born during 1931-1982, reported smoking and drinking habits. The authors used quantitative genetic models to examine how these behaviors' genetic and environmental variances differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. As expected, more education was associated with less smoking, and average drinking levels were highest among the most educated. At 2 standard deviations above the mean educational level, variance in smoking and drinking was about one-third that among those at 2 standard deviations below, because fewer highly educated people reported high levels of smoking or drinking. Because shared environmental variance was particularly restricted, one explanation is that education created a culture that discouraged smoking and heavy drinking. Correlations between shared environmental influences on education and the health behaviors were substantial among the well-educated for smoking in both sexes and drinking in males, reinforcing this notion.
PubMed ID
21051448 View in PubMed
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Education reduces the effects of genetic susceptibilities to poor physical health.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature98807
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):406-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2010
Author
Wendy Johnson
Kirsten Ohm Kyvik
Erik L Mortensen
Axel Skytthe
G David Batty
Ian J Deary
Author Affiliation
Centre for Cognitive Ageing and Cognitive Epidemiology, Department of Psychology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK. wendy.johnson@ed.ac.uk
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):406-14
Date
Apr-2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Denmark
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Female
Genetic Predisposition to Disease - epidemiology - prevention & control
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Regression Analysis
Social Class
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Greater education is associated with better physical health. This has been of great concern to public health officials. Most demonstrations show that education influences mean levels of health. Little is known about the influence of education on variance in health status, or about how this influence may impact the underlying genetic and environmental sources of health problems. This study explored these influences. METHODS: In a 2002 postal questionnaire, 21 522 members of same-sex pairs in the Danish Twin Registry born between 1931 and 1982 reported physical health in the 12-item Short Form Health Survey. We used quantitative genetic models to examine how genetic and environmental variance in physical health differed with level of education, adjusting for birth-year effects. RESULTS: and Conclusions As expected, greater education was associated with better physical health. Greater education was also associated with smaller variance in health status. In both sexes, 2 standard deviations (SDs) above mean educational level, variance in physical health was only about half that among those 2 SDs below. This was because fewer highly educated people reported poor health. There was less total variance in health primarily because there was less genetic variance. Education apparently reduced expression of genetic susceptibilities to poor health. The patterns of genetic and environmental correlations suggested that this might take place because more educated people manage their environments to protect their health. If so, fostering the personal charactieristics associated with educational attainment could be important in reducing the education-health gradient.
Notes
RefSource: Int J Epidemiol. 2010 Apr;39(2):415-6
PubMed ID
19861402 View in PubMed
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27 records – page 1 of 3.