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Accuracy in celiac disease diagnostics by controlling the small-bowel biopsy process.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature135188
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 May;52(5):549-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Charlotta Webb
Britta Halvarsson
Fredrik Norström
Anna Myléus
Annelie Carlsson
Lars Danielsson
Lotta Högberg
Anneli Ivarsson
Eva Karlsson
Lars Stenhammar
Olof Sandström
Author Affiliation
Department of Pediatrics, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011 May;52(5):549-53
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Biological Markers - blood
Biopsy - methods
Celiac Disease - epidemiology - pathology - surgery
Child
Diagnostic Errors - prevention & control
Endoscopy - methods
Humans
Intestinal Mucosa - pathology - surgery
Intestine, Small - pathology - surgery
Mass Screening - methods
Prevalence
Retrospective Studies
Suction
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
In a Swedish celiac disease screening study (Exploring the Iceberg of Celiacs in Sweden), we systematically reviewed the clinical diagnostic procedures with the aim to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and to take advantage of lessons learned for improving diagnostic routines.
A school-based celiac disease screening study involving 5 Swedish centers, with 10,041 invited 12-year-olds with 7567 consenting participation. All 192 children with elevated serological markers were recommended to undergo small-bowel biopsy, performed and evaluated according to local clinical routines. All of the mucosal specimens were reevaluated by 1 and, when needed, 2 expert pathologists to reach diagnostic consensus.
Small-bowel biopsies were performed in 184 children: 130 by endoscopy and 54 by suction capsule. Endoscopic biopsies were inconclusive in 0.6%, compared with 7.4% of biopsies by suction capsule. A patchy enteropathy was found in 9.1%. Reevaluation by the expert pathologist resulted in 6 additional cases with celiac disease and 1 cleared. Sixteen children with normal or inconclusive biopsies, 4 after endoscopy, and 12 after suction capsule were endoscopically rebiopsied, resulting in another 8 cases. The celiac disease prevalence of 30 of 1000 (95% confidence interval 26-34) was not statistically different from that previously reported.
The present review revealed the importance of controlling each step of the diagnostic procedure. Several cases would have been missed by relying only on local routines. To improve the quality of childhood celiac disease diagnostics, we recommend multiple endoscopic biopsies from both proximal and distal duodenum and standardized evaluation by a pathologist with good knowledge of celiac disease.
PubMed ID
21502825 View in PubMed
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Body mass index is not a reliable tool in predicting celiac disease in children.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262169
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:165
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Maria van der Pals
Anna Myléus
Fredrik Norström
Solveig Hammarroth
Lotta Högberg
Anna Rosén
Anneli Ivarsson
Annelie Carlsson
Source
BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:165
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Autoantibodies - blood
Biological Markers - blood
Body Height
Body mass index
Body Weight
Case-Control Studies
Celiac Disease - blood - diagnosis
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Mass Screening
Sweden
Abstract
Untreated celiac disease is traditionally believed to be associated with malabsorption and underweight. However, studies describing body mass index (BMI) in individuals at the time of diagnosis have shown contradictory results. We investigated the differences in weight, height, and BMI in 12- year-old children with screening-detected celiac disease compared to their healthy peers.
In a population-based screening study of 12,632 12-year-old children, blood samples were analyzed for markers of celiac disease. Children with elevated markers were referred for a small bowel biopsy. Weight and height were measured in 239 out of 242 children with screening-detected celiac disease (57.3% girls) and in 12,227 children without celiac disease (48.5% girls). BMI was categorized according to the International Obesity Task Force. Age- and sex-specific cut-off points for underweight, normal weight, and overweight were used.
Children with celiac disease weighed less and were shorter than their peers (median weight 45.2 kg, interquartile range (IQR) 40.2-52.2 kg vs. 47.0 kg, IQR 41.1-54.4 kg, respectively, p = 0.01; median height 156.5 cm, IQR 151.0-162.0 cm vs. 157.5 cm, IQR 152.0-163.0 cm, respectively, p = 0.04). In comparing those with celiac disease to their healthy peers, 4.2% vs. 5.2% were underweight, 82.0% vs. 72.8% were normal weight, and 13.8% vs. 21.9% were overweight, respectively. There was no association between being underweight and the risk of having undiagnosed celiac disease (Odds ratio (OR) 1.3, 95% CI 0.7-2.4), but the risk was significantly lower among overweight children (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.4-0.8). Median BMI was slightly lower among the children with screening-detected celiac disease compared to their healthy peers (18.6 kg/m2, IQR 17.1-19.8 kg/m2 vs. 18.8 kg/m2, IQR 17.2-21.1 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.05), but most of the celiac disease cases had a normal BMI.
At a population level, children with celiac disease weigh less, are shorter, and have a lower BMI compared to their peers without celiac disease, and this emphasizes the importance of early recognition and treatment of the condition. However, at an individual level, growth parameters are not reliable in establishing the diagnosis.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24981433 View in PubMed
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Celiac disease can be predicted by high levels of anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in population-based screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272620
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Jun;60(6):787-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-2015
Author
Charlotta Webb
Fredrik Norström
Anna Myléus
Anneli Ivarsson
Britta Halvarsson
Lotta Högberg
Carina Lagerqvist
Anna Rosén
Olof Sandström
Lars Stenhammar
Annelie Carlsson
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Jun;60(6):787-91
Date
Jun-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Autoantibodies - blood
Biopsy - methods
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - epidemiology - immunology - pathology
Child
Child, Preschool
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
GTP-Binding Proteins - immunology
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - blood
Intestine, Small - pathology
Male
Mass Screening - methods
Sweden
Transglutaminases - immunology
Abstract
The aim of the present study was to evaluate any potential correlation between anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies of type immunoglobulin A (tTG-IgA) and the degree of gluten-induced enteropathy in children participating in a screening study for celiac disease (CD) and to assess to what extent the revised European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) guidelines cover this group of patients.
The present study is a substudy of a cross-sectional CD screening study, Exploring the Iceberg of Celiacs in Sweden, a 2-phased study performed during 2005 to 2006 and 2009 to 2010. The 13,279 participating children had a blood test obtained, and those with positive tTG-IgA were recommended a small intestinal biopsy. The tTG-IgA levels at the time of biopsy were compared with those at the assessment of the biopsy.
There were 267 children included, of whom 230 were diagnosed as having CD. Of all of the children, 67 children had low tTG-IgA levels (
Notes
Comment In: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 May;60(5):e4725729890
Comment In: J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 May;60(5):e4725729891
PubMed ID
25564816 View in PubMed
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The cost-effectiveness of interventions targeting lifestyle change for the prevention of diabetes in a Swedish primary care and community based prevention program.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature291772
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2017 Sep; 18(7):905-919
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Sep-2017
Author
Anne Neumann
Lars Lindholm
Margareta Norberg
Olaf Schoffer
Stefanie J Klug
Fredrik Norström
Author Affiliation
Epidemiology and Global Health, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, 901 87, Umeå, Sweden. Anne.Neumann@uniklinikum-dresden.de.
Source
Eur J Health Econ. 2017 Sep; 18(7):905-919
Date
Sep-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - prevention & control
Exercise
Female
Health Promotion - economics - organization & administration
Healthy Diet
Healthy Lifestyle
Humans
Male
Markov Chains
Middle Aged
Primary Health Care - economics - organization & administration
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Sweden
Weight Loss
Abstract
Policymakers need to know the cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes (T2D). The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention initiative targeting weight reduction, increased physical activity and healthier diet in persons in pre-diabetic states by comparing a hypothetical intervention versus no intervention in a Swedish setting.
A Markov model was used to study the cost-effectiveness of a T2D prevention program based on lifestyle change versus a control group where no prevention was applied. Analyses were done deterministically and probabilistically based on Monte Carlo simulation for six different scenarios defined by sex and age groups (30, 50, 70 years). Cost and quality adjusted life year (QALY) differences between no intervention and intervention and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated and visualized in cost-effectiveness planes (CE planes) and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEA curves).
All ICERs were cost-effective and ranged from 3833 €/QALY gained (women, 30 years) to 9215 €/QALY gained (men, 70 years). The CEA curves showed that the probability of the intervention being cost-effective at the threshold value of 50,000 € per QALY gained was very high for all scenarios ranging from 85.0 to 91.1%.
The prevention or the delay of the onset of T2D is feasible and cost-effective. A small investment in healthy lifestyle with change in physical activity and diet together with weight loss are very likely to be cost-effective.
Notes
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PubMed ID
27913943 View in PubMed
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Delay to celiac disease diagnosis and its implications for health-related quality of life.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129841
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:118
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Fredrik Norström
Lars Lindholm
Olof Sandström
Katrina Nordyke
Anneli Ivarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. fredrik.norstrom@epiph.umu.se
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2011;11:118
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Anxiety - psychology
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - psychology - therapy
Cross-Sectional Studies
Delayed Diagnosis
Depression - psychology
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Pain Measurement
Quality of Life - psychology
Quality-Adjusted Life Years
Questionnaires
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
To determine how the delay in diagnosing celiac disease (CD) has developed during recent decades and how this affects the burden of disease in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and also to consider differences with respect to sex and age.
In collaboration with the Swedish Society for Coeliacs, a questionnaire was sent to 1,560 randomly selected members, divided in equal-sized age- and sex strata, and 1,031 (66%) responded. HRQoL was measured with the EQ-5D descriptive system and was then translated to quality-adjusted life year (QALY) scores. A general population survey was used as comparison.
The mean delay to diagnosis from the first symptoms was 9.7 years, and from the first doctor visit it was 5.8 years. The delay has been reduced over time for some age groups, but is still quite long. The mean QALY score during the year prior to initiated treatment was 0.66; it improved after diagnosis and treatment to 0.86, and was then better than that of a general population (0.79).
The delay from first symptoms to CD diagnosis is unacceptably long for many persons. Untreated CD results in poor HRQoL, which improves to the level of the general population if diagnosed and treated. By shortening the diagnostic delay it is possible to reduce this unnecessary burden of disease. Increased awareness of CD as a common health problem is needed, and active case finding should be intensified. Mass screening for CD might be an option in the future.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22060243 View in PubMed
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Determinants of waterpipe use amongst adolescents in Northern Sweden: a survey of use pattern, risk perception, and environmental factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273709
Source
BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:441
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Rathi Ramji
Judy Arnetz
Maria Nilsson
Hikmet Jamil
Fredrik Norström
Wasim Maziak
Ywonne Wiklund
Bengt Arnetz
Source
BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:441
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Environment
Female
Humans
Logistic Models
Male
Marketing
Risk-Taking
Sanitary Engineering
Smoking
Surveys and Questionnaires
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
Determinants of waterpipe use in adolescents are believed to differ from those for other tobacco products, but there is a lack of studies of possible social, cultural, or psychological aspects of waterpipe use in this population. This study applied a socioecological model to explore waterpipe use, and its relationship to other tobacco use in Swedish adolescents.
A total of 106 adolescents who attended an urban high-school in northern Sweden responded to an anonymous questionnaire. Prevalence rates for waterpipe use were examined in relation to socio-demographics, peer pressure, sensation seeking behavior, harm perception, environmental factors, and depression.
Thirty-three percent reported ever having smoked waterpipe (ever use), with 30% having done so during the last 30 days (current use). Among waterpipe ever users, 60% had ever smoked cigarettes in comparison to 32% of non-waterpipe smokers (95% confidence interval 1.4-7.9). The odds of having ever smoked waterpipe were three times higher among male high school seniors as well as students with lower grades. Waterpipe ever users had three times higher odds of having higher levels of sensation-seeking (95% confidence interval 1.2-9.5) and scored high on the depression scales (95% confidence interval 1.6-6.8) than non-users. The odds of waterpipe ever use were four times higher for those who perceived waterpipe products to have pleasant smell compared to cigarettes (95% confidence interval 1.7-9.8). Waterpipe ever users were twice as likely to have seen waterpipe use on television compared to non-users (95% confidence interval 1.1-5.7). The odds of having friends who smoked regularly was eight times higher for waterpipe ever users than non-users (95% confidence interval 2.1-31.2).
The current study reports a high use of waterpipe in a select group of students in northern Sweden. The study adds the importance of looking at socioecological determinants of use, including peer pressure and exposure to media marketing, as well as mental health among users.
Notes
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PubMed ID
26374502 View in PubMed
Less detail

A gluten-free diet effectively reduces symptoms and health care consumption in a Swedish celiac disease population.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120646
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:125
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Fredrik Norström
Olof Sandström
Lars Lindholm
Anneli Ivarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Sweden. fredrik.norstrom@epiph.umu.se
Source
BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:125
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Absenteeism
Adult
Aged
Arthralgia - diagnosis - diet therapy
Autoimmune Diseases - diagnosis
Celiac Disease - diet therapy
Cross-Sectional Studies
Delivery of Health Care - utilization
Diet, Gluten-Free
Female
Health Care Surveys
Humans
Length of Stay
Male
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Self Report
Sweden
Young Adult
Abstract
A gluten-free diet is the only available treatment for celiac disease. Our aim was to investigate the effect of a gluten-free diet on celiac disease related symptoms, health care consumption, and the risk of developing associated immune-mediated diseases.
A questionnaire was sent to 1,560 randomly selected members of the Swedish Society for Coeliacs, divided into equal-sized age- and sex strata; 1,031 (66%) responded. Self-reported symptoms, health care consumption (measured by health care visits and hospitalization days), and missed working days were reported both for the year prior to diagnosis (normal diet) and the year prior to receiving the questionnaire while undergoing treatment with a gluten-free diet. Associated immune-mediated diseases (diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatic disease, thyroid disease, vitiligo, alopecia areata and inflammatory bowel disease) were self-reported including the year of diagnosis.
All investigated symptoms except joint pain improved after diagnosis and initiated gluten-free diet. Both health care consumption and missed working days decreased. Associated immune-mediated diseases were diagnosed equally often before and after celiac disease diagnosis.
Initiated treatment with a gluten-free diet improves the situation for celiac disease patients in terms of reduced symptoms and health care consumption. An earlier celiac disease diagnosis is therefore of great importance.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22984893 View in PubMed
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Health-related quality of life in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease, before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, a prospective nested case-referent study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature116289
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:142
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Katrina Nordyke
Fredrik Norström
Lars Lindholm
Hans Stenlund
Anna Rosén
Anneli Ivarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. katrina.nordyke@epiph.umu.se
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:142
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Case-Control Studies
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - diet therapy
Child
Diet, Gluten-Free
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Health status
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Prospective Studies
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Sweden
Time Factors
Treatment Outcome
Abstract
Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic disorder in genetically predisposed individuals in which a small intestinal immune-mediated enteropathy is precipitated by dietary gluten. It can be difficult to diagnose because signs and symptoms may be absent, subtle, or not recognized as CD related and therefore not prompt testing within routine clinical practice. Thus, most people with CD are undiagnosed and a public health intervention, which involves screening the general population, is an option to find those with unrecognized CD. However, how these screening-detected individuals experience the diagnosis and treatment (gluten-free diet) is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of adolescents with screening-detected CD before and one year after diagnosis and treatment.
A prospective nested case-referent study was done involving Swedish adolescents who had participated in a CD screening study when they were in the sixth grade and about 12?years old. Screening-detected adolescents (n?=?103) and referents without CD who participated in the same screening (n?=?483) answered questionnaires at the time of the screening and approximately one year after the screening-detected adolescents had received their diagnosis that included the EQ-5D instrument used to measure health status and report HRQoL.
The HRQoL for the adolescents with screening-detected CD is similar to the referents, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of the gluten-free diet, except in the dimension of pain at follow-up. In the pain dimension at follow-up, fewer cases reported problems than referents (12.6% and 21.9% respectively, Adjusted OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.27-0.94). However, a sex stratified analysis revealed that the significant difference was for boys at follow-up, where fewer screening-detected boys reported problems (4.3%) compared to referent boys (18.8%) (Adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04-0.73).
The findings of this study suggest that adolescents with unrecognized CD experience similar HRQoL as their peers without CD, both before and one year after diagnosis and initiation of gluten-free diet, except for boys in the dimension of pain at follow-up.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23414483 View in PubMed
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Health-related quality-of-life in children with coeliac disease, measured prior to receiving their diagnosis through screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature129453
Source
J Med Screen. 2011;18(4):187-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Katrina Nordyke
Fredrik Norström
Lars Lindholm
Annelie Carlsson
Lars Danielsson
Maria Emmelin
Lotta Högberg
Eva Karlsson
Anneli Ivarsson
Author Affiliation
Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, 901 85 Umeå, Sweden. katrina.nordyke@epiph.umu.se
Source
J Med Screen. 2011;18(4):187-92
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Celiac Disease - diagnosis - physiopathology
Child
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Humans
Male
Mass Screening
Quality of Life
Questionnaires
Sweden
Abstract
To compare the health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) of children with screening-detected coeliac disease (CD), before they learned of their diagnosis, with that of children without CD and in those previously diagnosed with CD.
In a cross-sectional CD screening study ('ETICS': Exploring the Iceberg of Coeliacs in Sweden), of 10,041 Swedish 12-year-olds invited, 7567 (75%) consented to participate, and 7208 (72%) children without previously diagnosed CD had serological markers analysed. Before the screening results were known, 7218 children (72%) and 6524 of their parents (65%) answered questionnaires. Questionnaires included the Swedish child-friendly pilot version of the EQ-5D instrument and proxy version of the EQ-5D instrument, which are generic tools used to describe HRQoL.
We found no significant difference in HRQoL between the groups of children with screening-detected CD, without CD, and those previously diagnosed with CD.
The HRQoL reported by 12-year-olds with screening-detected CD, before they learned of their diagnosis, was not worse than that of the children without CD or those previously diagnosed with CD. Thus, mass screening for CD should not be justified on the basis that children with unrecognized CD have a poor HRQoL. However, because these children rated their HRQoL before diagnosis and treatment, they may not have recognized or perceived symptoms as severe enough to seek medical attention which demonstrates how difficult clinical/active case finding can be. Mass screening may still, therefore, be considered if the aim is early detection and prevention of future complications.
PubMed ID
22106434 View in PubMed
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High adherence to a gluten-free diet in adolescents with screening-detected celiac disease.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature265798
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Jan;60(1):54-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2015
Author
Charlotta Webb
Anna Myléus
Fredrik Norström
Solveig Hammarroth
Lotta Högberg
Carina Lagerqvist
Anna Rosén
Olof Sandström
Lars Stenhammar
Anneli Ivarsson
Annelie Carlsson
Source
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2015 Jan;60(1):54-9
Date
Jan-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Autoantibodies - analysis
Biological Markers - blood
Biopsy
Celiac Disease - blood - diagnosis - diet therapy - pathology
Child
Child Behavior
Cohort Studies
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet, Gluten-Free
Follow-Up Studies
GTP-Binding Proteins - antagonists & inhibitors
Humans
Immunoglobulin A - analysis
Intestinal Mucosa - pathology
Intestine, Small - pathology
Mass Screening
Patient compliance
Self Report
Sweden
Transglutaminases - antagonists & inhibitors
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the gluten-free diet (GFD) adherence after 1 year of follow-up in children with screening-detected celiac disease (CD) in a general population.
A total of 18,325 twelve-year-olds were invited to participate in a population-based CD screening (Exploring the Iceberg of Celiacs in Sweden), of whom 13,279 participated. In 240 children, CD was detected through elevated anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies 2 (TG2-IgA) and verified by a small-intestinal biopsy. This substudy included 210 children with TG2-IgA, evaluated both at the initial biopsy occasion and at 1-year follow-up. GFD adherence was evaluated by a combination of TG2-IgA measurements and self-reported adherence (n?=?193).
After 1 year, 85% (179/210) had normalized TG2-IgA levels (50 U/mL at diagnosis, 25% (16/63) still had elevated TG2-IgA, but for the majority their initial values were more than halved. Most reported a high level of GFD adherence ("always" 82% [158/193] and "often" 16% [30/193]), and 75% [145/193] reported always adhering combined with normalized TG2-IgA. Although reporting that they were always adherent, 13 (6.7%) had not yet normalized their TG2-IgA levels completely; however, a majority of these initially had the highest TG2-IgA levels.
GFD adherence is high in adolescents with CD detected by screening of the general population of Swedish 12-year-olds. Almost all of them had normalized serology and reported GFD adherence at the 1-year follow-up. A few adolescents who reported GFD adherence, however, had elevated TG2-IgA levels, suggesting more severe disease and/or nonadherence.
PubMed ID
25238121 View in PubMed
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