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Growth and phenology of three dwarf shrub species in a six-year soil warming experiment at the alpine treeline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature267621
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100577
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Alba Anadon-Rosell
Christian Rixen
Paolo Cherubini
Sonja Wipf
Frank Hagedorn
Melissa A Dawes
Source
PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e100577
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, physiological - physiology
Carbon Dioxide - metabolism
Ecosystem
Ericaceae - classification - physiology
Nitrogen - metabolism
Plant Shoots - growth & development
Soil - chemistry
Temperature
Vaccinium - classification - physiology
Abstract
Global warming can have substantial impacts on the phenological and growth patterns of alpine and Arctic species, resulting in shifts in plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics. We evaluated the effects of a six-year experimental soil warming treatment (+4?C, 2007-2012) on the phenology and growth of three co-dominant dwarf shrub species growing in the understory of Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata at treeline in the Swiss Alps. We monitored vegetative and reproductive phenology of Vaccinium myrtillus, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Empetrum hermaphroditum throughout the early growing season of 2012 and, following a major harvest at peak season, we measured the biomass of above-ground ramet fractions. For all six years of soil warming we measured annual shoot growth of the three species and analyzed ramet age and xylem ring width of V. myrtillus. Our results show that phenology of the three species was more influenced by snowmelt timing, and also by plot tree species (Larix or Pinus) in the case of V. myrtillus, than by soil warming. However, the warming treatment led to increased V. myrtillus total above-ground ramet biomass (+36% in 2012), especially new shoot biomass (+63% in 2012), as well as increased new shoot increment length and xylem ring width (+22% and +41%, respectively; average for 2007-2012). These results indicate enhanced overall growth of V. myrtillus under soil warming that was sustained over six years and was not caused by an extended growing period in early summer. In contrast, E. hermaphroditum only showed a positive shoot growth response to warming in 2011 (+21%), and V. gaultherioides showed no significant growth response. Our results indicate that V. myrtillus might have a competitive advantage over the less responsive co-occurring dwarf shrub species under future global warming.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24956273 View in PubMed
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Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature264314
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Nov;20(11):3530-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Frank Hagedorn
Stepan G Shiyatov
Valeriy S Mazepa
Nadezhda M Devi
Andrey A Grigor'ev
Alexandr A Bartysh
Valeriy V Fomin
Denis S Kapralov
Maxim Terent'ev
Harald Bugman
Andreas Rigling
Pavel A Moiseev
Source
Glob Chang Biol. 2014 Nov;20(11):3530-43
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Altitude
Climate change
Forests
Plant Dispersal
Russia
Seasons
Snow
Temperature
Trees - growth & development
Tundra
Abstract
High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks.
PubMed ID
24756980 View in PubMed
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Unravelling the age of fine roots of temperate and boreal forests.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294144
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 01; 9(1):3006
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Aug-01-2018
Author
Emily F Solly
Ivano Brunner
Heljä-Sisko Helmisaari
Claude Herzog
Jaana Leppälammi-Kujansuu
Ingo Schöning
Marion Schrumpf
Fritz H Schweingruber
Susan E Trumbore
Frank Hagedorn
Author Affiliation
Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research WSL, Zürcherstrasse 111, 8903, Birmensdorf, Switzerland. emily.solly@wsl.ch.
Source
Nat Commun. 2018 Aug 01; 9(1):3006
Date
Aug-01-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
Fine roots support the water and nutrient demands of plants and supply carbon to soils. Quantifying turnover times of fine roots is crucial for modeling soil organic matter dynamics and constraining carbon cycle-climate feedbacks. Here we challenge widely used isotope-based estimates suggesting the turnover of fine roots of trees to be as slow as a decade. By recording annual growth rings of roots from woody plant species, we show that mean chronological ages of fine roots vary from
Notes
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PubMed ID
30068916 View in PubMed
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