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Acute infections and environmental exposure to organochlorines in Inuit infants from Nunavik.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4455
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2004
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Carole Vézina
Sandra W Jacobson
Joseph L Jacobson
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Laval University, and Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Laval University Medical Center, 945 Wolfe Street, Sainte-Foy, Québec G1V 5B3, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Oct;112(14):1359-65
Date
Oct-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Acute Disease
Adult
Cohort Studies
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - poisoning
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - poisoning
Female
Gastrointestinal Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - microbiology
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - poisoning
Inuits
Male
Otitis Media - epidemiology - etiology
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - poisoning
Pregnancy
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects
Quebec - epidemiology
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Respiratory Tract Infections - epidemiology - etiology
Retrospective Studies
Abstract
The Inuit population of Nunavik (Canada) is exposed to immunotoxic organochlorines (OCs) mainly through the consumption of fish and marine mammal fat. We investigated the effect of perinatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) on the incidence of acute infections in Inuit infants. We reviewed the medical charts of a cohort of 199 Inuit infants during the first 12 months of life and evaluated the incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections (URTI and LRTIs, respectively), otitis media, and gastrointestinal (GI) infections. Maternal plasma during delivery and infant plasma at 7 months of age were sampled and assayed for PCBs and DDE. Compared to rates for infants in the first quartile of exposure to PCBs (least exposed), adjusted rate ratios for infants in higher quartiles ranged between 1.09 and 1.32 for URTIs, 0.99 and 1.39 for otitis, 1.52 and 1.89 for GI infections, and 1.16 and 1.68 for LRTIs during the first 6 months of follow-up. For all infections combined, the rate ratios ranged from 1.17 to 1.27. The effect size was similar for DDE exposure but was lower for the full 12-month follow-up. Globally, most rate ratios were > 1.0, but few were statistically significant (p
PubMed ID
15471725 View in PubMed
Less detail

Bat rabies in the United States and Canada from 1950 through 2007: human cases with and without bat contact.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature157679
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 1;46(9):1329-37
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-1-2008
Author
Gaston De Serres
Frédéric Dallaire
Mathieu Côte
Danuta M Skowronski
Author Affiliation
Institut national de santé publique du Québec, Canada. gaston.deserres@ssss.gouv.qc.ca
Source
Clin Infect Dis. 2008 May 1;46(9):1329-37
Date
May-1-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Canada - epidemiology
Child
Chiroptera - virology
Female
Geography
Humans
Male
Rabies - epidemiology - transmission
Rabies virus - isolation & purification
United States - epidemiology
Abstract
Since the 1980s, rare cases of rabies in humans in Canada and the United States have been almost exclusively caused by the bat-variant virus.
We reviewed indigenously acquired cases of bat-variant rabies in humans in Canada and the United States from 1950 through 2007.
Of 61 cases identified, 5 occurred after organ transplantation and were excluded from further analysis. A bite was reported by 22 (39%) of the case patients, 9 (16%) had a direct contact (i.e., were touched by a bat) but no history of a bite, 6 (11%) found bats in their home (2 [4%] in the room where they slept) but reported no direct contact, and 19 (34%) reported no history of bat exposure whatsoever. With the exception of California (8 cases) and Texas (7 cases), no state or province had >3 cases. Of the case patients, 76% were men, and 40% were 10-29 years of age. The median incubation period was 7 weeks (
PubMed ID
18419432 View in PubMed
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Long-lasting measles outbreak affecting several unrelated networks of unvaccinated persons.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature147967
Source
J Infect Dis. 2009 Nov 15;200(10):1602-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-15-2009
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Gaston De Serres
François-William Tremblay
France Markowski
Graham Tipples
Author Affiliation
Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, PQ, Canada.
Source
J Infect Dis. 2009 Nov 15;200(10):1602-5
Date
Nov-15-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Child
Child, Preschool
Contact Tracing
Disease Outbreaks
Female
Humans
Immunity, Herd
Male
Measles - epidemiology - genetics
Measles Vaccine - therapeutic use
Molecular Sequence Data
Quebec - epidemiology
Treatment Refusal
Young Adult
Abstract
Despite a population immunity level estimated at approximately 95%, an outbreak of measles responsible for 94 cases occurred in Quebec, Canada. Unlike previous outbreaks in which most unvaccinated children belonged to a single community, this outbreak had cases coming from several unrelated networks of unvaccinated persons dispersed in the population. No epidemiological link was found for about one-third of laboratory-confirmed cases. This outbreak demonstrated that minimal changes in the level of aggregation of unvaccinated individuals can lead to sustained transmission in highly vaccinated populations. Mathematical work is needed regarding the level of aggregation of unvaccinated individuals that would jeopardize elimination.
PubMed ID
19827945 View in PubMed
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Marked variations in serial coronary artery diameter measures in Kawasaki disease: a new indicator of coronary involvement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature122372
Source
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012 Aug;25(8):859-65
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2012
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Anne Fournier
Jolène Breton
Thanh-Diem Nguyen
Linda Spigelblatt
Nagib Dahdah
Author Affiliation
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Laval University Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec, Quebec, Canada.
Source
J Am Soc Echocardiogr. 2012 Aug;25(8):859-65
Date
Aug-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Comorbidity
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - ultrasonography
Coronary Vessels - ultrasonography
Echocardiography - statistics & numerical data
Female
Humans
Infant
Male
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome - epidemiology - ultrasonography
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Reproducibility of Results
Risk factors
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
The long-term risk of patients with Kawasaki disease is not well defined. A great proportion of patients with Kawasaki disease have important variation of their coronary artery (CA) diameters, but the significance of this variation is not known. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients within the normal range of CA diameters but with important Z-score variation have a stronger inflammatory response and increased resistance to treatment than those without such Z-score variation.
A retrospective study was conducted in 197 patients with Kawasaki disease with serial echocardiograms up to 12 months after diagnosis. Patients with occult CA dilatation (variation > 2 Z-score units but within the normal range) were compared with patients with definite CA dilatation (Z score > 2.5) and with patients with normal CA for resistance to treatment and systemic inflammatory parameters.
A total of 63 patients (32.0%) were identified with Z scores always within the normal range but with important variation of CA diameter during follow-up (occult dilatation). There was a strong statistically significant trend of increasing inflammatory marker levels across patient categories (normal > occult dilatation > definite dilatation). Furthermore, resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy was significantly increased in patients with occult dilatation compared with patients with normal CAs (relative risk, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-5.44; P = .006).
The suggested definition of occult CA dilatation identified patients with CA involvement currently unrecognized per the current guidelines. These patients might be at a higher CA risk than previously thought.
PubMed ID
22824173 View in PubMed
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Temporal trends of organochlorine concentrations in umbilical cord blood of newborns from the lower north shore of the St. Lawrence river (Québec, Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature189161
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Aug;110(8):835-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2002
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Claire Laliberté
Gina Muckle
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Unit, Laval University Medical Center, and Laval University, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Aug;110(8):835-8
Date
Aug-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Animals
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Fishes
Humans
Indians, North American
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Male
Maternal Exposure
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Pregnancy
Quebec - epidemiology
Rural Population
Seafood
Abstract
This study describes the time trends of organochlorines [OCs; 14 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 chlorinated pesticides] in umbilical cord plasma of newborns in a remote Canadian coastal population. We analyzed 408 cord blood samples collected between 1993 and 2000 for PCBs, chlordanes, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and n-3 fatty acids. We also gathered information on the mothers (age, past and present residence, ethnic group, use of tobacco during pregnancy, and breast-feeding during previous pregnancies). From 1993 to 2000, mean concentrations of PCBs, chlordanes, DDT/DDE, and HCB in cord blood decreased by 63%, 25%, 66%, and 69%, respectively (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
12153768 View in PubMed
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Time trends of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in umbilical cord blood of Inuit infants born in Nunavik (Québec, Canada) between 1994 and 2001.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature4468
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Oct;111(13):1660-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2003
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Gina Muckle
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Unit, Laval University Medical Center (CHUL-CHUQ), and Laval University, Québec City, Québec, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Oct;111(13):1660-4
Date
Oct-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Food Contamination
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Insecticides - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Inuits
Metals, Heavy - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Pregnancy
Quebec
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Time Factors
Abstract
Inuit inhabitants of Nunavik (northern Québec, Canada) consume great quantities of marine food and are therefore exposed to high doses of food chain contaminants. In this study, we report the time trends of persistent organic pollutants, mercury, and lead in umbilical cord blood of infants from three communities of the east coast of Hudson Bay in Nunavik. We analyzed 251 cord blood samples collected from 1994 through 2001 for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes, lead, and mercury. Using an exponential model, we found strongly significant decreasing trends for PCBs (7.9% per year, p
PubMed ID
14527847 View in PubMed
Less detail

Vitamin A concentration in umbilical cord blood of infants from three separate regions of the province of Québec (Canada).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature3443
Source
Can J Public Health. 2003 Sep-Oct;94(5):386-90
Publication Type
Article
Author
Frédéric Dallaire
Eric Dewailly
Ramesh Shademani
Claire Laliberté
Suzanne Bruneau
Marc Rhainds
Carole Blanchet
Michel Lefebvre
Pierre Ayotte
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Unit, Laval University Medical Center (CHUL-CHUQ), and Laval University, Sainte-Foy, Québec.
Source
Can J Public Health. 2003 Sep-Oct;94(5):386-90
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Chromatography, Liquid
Comparative Study
Diet
Female
Fetal Blood - chemistry
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Inuits
Linear Models
Male
Nutritional Status
Pregnancy
Quebec - epidemiology
Reference Values
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk factors
Smoking
Vitamin A - blood
Vitamin A Deficiency - blood - ethnology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Inuit women from Northern Québec have been shown to consume inadequate quantities of vitamin A. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of blood vitamin A deficiency in newborns from 3 distinct populations of the province of Québec. METHODS: 594 newborns were included in this study (375 Inuit newborns from northern Québec (Nunavik), 107 Caucasian and Native newborns from the Lower Northern Shore of the Saint-Lawrence River (LNS) and 112 newborns from Southern Québec where clinical vitamin A deficiency is uncommon). Mothers were recruited at delivery and vitamin A (retinol) was analyzed from umbilical cord blood samples by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS: Nunavik and LNS newborns had significantly lower mean vitamin A concentrations in cord blood compared to Southern Québec participants (15.7 microg/dL, 16.8 microg/dL and 20.4 microg/dL respectively). The differences observed were similar when adjusted for sex and birthweight. Results also showed that 8.5% of Nunavik newborns and 12.2% of LNS newborns were below 10.0 microg/dL, a level thought to be indicative of blood vitamin A deficiency in neonates. CONCLUSION: These data suggest that a carefully planned vitamin A supplementation program during pregnancy in Nunavik and LNS might be indicated to promote healthy infant development.
PubMed ID
14577751 View in PubMed
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7 records – page 1 of 1.