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Epidemiology of bacterial meningitis in the North American Arctic, 2000-2010.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261730
Source
J Infect. 2015 Apr 10;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-10-2015
Author
Prabhu P Gounder
Tammy Zulz
Shalini Desai
Flemming Stenz
Karen Rudolph
Raymond Tsang
Gregory J Tyrrell
Michael G Bruce
Source
J Infect. 2015 Apr 10;
Date
Apr-10-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
To determine the incidence of meningitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the North American Arctic during 2000-2010.
Surveillance data were obtained from the International Circumpolar Surveillance network. We defined a case of bacterial meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, or S. pneumoniae as a culture-positive isolate obtained from a normally sterile site in a resident with a meningitis diagnosis.
The annual incidence/100,000 persons for meningitis caused by H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, and S. pneumoniae among all North American Arctic residents was: 0.6, 0.5, and 1.5, respectively; the meningitis incidence among indigenous persons in Alaska and Canada (indigenous status not recorded in Greenland) for those three bacteria was: 2.1, 0.8, and 2.4, respectively. The percentage of pneumococcal isolates belonging to a 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine serotype declined from 2000-2004 to 2005-2010 (31%-2%, p-value
PubMed ID
25864638 View in PubMed
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Mycoplasma genitalium presence, resistance and epidemiology in Greenland.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124622
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Dionne C Gesink
Gert Mulvad
Ruth Montgomery-Andersen
Upaluk Poppel
Stephan Montgomery-Andersen
Aka Binzer
Lee Vernich
Gillian Frosst
Flemming Stenz
Elizabeth Rink
Ove Rosing Olsen
Anders Koch
Jørgen Skov Jensen
Author Affiliation
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada. dionne.gesink@utoronto.ca
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2012;71:1-8
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Azithromycin - therapeutic use
Chlamydia Infections - epidemiology
Chlamydia trachomatis - isolation & purification
Cross-Sectional Studies
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Drug Resistance, Microbial
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Mycoplasma Infections - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Mycoplasma genitalium - isolation & purification
Prevalence
Sexually Transmitted Diseases - drug therapy - epidemiology - microbiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Greenland reports the highest rates of chlamydial infection and gonorrhea in the Arctic. Our objective was to determine the presence, and describe the basic epidemiology, of Mycoplasma genitalium for Greenland.
Cross-sectional study.
314 residents from Nuuk and Sisimiut, between the ages of 15 and 65 years, participated in "Inuulluataarneq" (the Greenland Sexual Health Project) between July 2008 and November 2009. Participants provided self-collected samples for sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and completed a sexual health survey. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used to summarize the basic characteristics of STI cases overall and M. genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis specifically. Clinically relevant characteristics in each full model were gender (male or female), age (in years), age at sexual debut (in years), number of sexual partners in the past 3 months (continuous) and history of forced sex and community.
The overall prevalence of STIs was 19.0%, specifically: 9.8% for M. genitalium and 9.4% for C. trachomatis; 100% of M. genitalium-positive cases carried macrolide resistance determinants. Being female [OR = 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-9.8] and younger age (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9-1.0) were associated with M. genitalium positivity. Age was also associated with C. trachomatis (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.9) and STI positivity overall (OR = 0.9; 95% CI: 0.9-0.9).
We observed a high prevalence of M. genitalium and macrolide resistance in this study. A better understanding of M. genitalium sequelae is needed to inform policy around testing, treatment, control and antibiotic use.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22564463 View in PubMed
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Ten years of tuberculosis intervention in Greenland - has it prevented cases of childhood tuberculosis?

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261833
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73:24843
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Emilie Birch
Mikael Andersson
Anders Koch
Flemming Stenz
Bolette Søborg
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2014;73:24843
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Age Distribution
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Communicable Disease Control - organization & administration
Female
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Intervention Studies
Male
Multivariate Analysis
Program Evaluation
Registries
Regression Analysis
Retrospective Studies
Risk assessment
Sex Distribution
Time Factors
Tuberculosis, Pulmonary - epidemiology - prevention & control
Abstract
The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) disease in Greenland doubled in the 1990s. To combat the increase, national TB interventions were initiated in 2000 and strengthened in 2007.
To determine whether the effect of interventions could be detected, we estimated the TB disease risk among children=15 years before and after interventions were implemented.
For a study cohort, we recruited all children =15 years of age included in the Greenlandic Civil Registration System (CRS) from 1990 to 2010. The CRS identifier was used to link cohort participants with TB cases identified based on the Greenlandic National TB registry. Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccination status was identified through year of birth, as BCG was offered to newborns born either before 1991 or after 1996. Years with interventions were defined as 2000-2006 (primary interventions) and 2007-2010 (intensified interventions). Risk of TB was estimated using Poisson regression.
The study included 35,858 children, of whom 209 had TB disease. The TB disease incidence decreased after interventions were implemented (2007-2010: IRR [incidence rate ratios] 0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.95, p=0.03, compared with the 1995-1999 period). The TB disease risk was inversely associated with BCG vaccination (IRR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.41-0.72, p
Notes
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PubMed ID
25045654 View in PubMed
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[Various strategies for elimination of tuberculosis].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136037
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2011 Mar 21;173(12):872-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-21-2011
Author
Peter Henrik Andersen
Zaza Kamper-Jørgensen
Flemming Stenz
Bolette Søborg
Author Affiliation
Epidemiologisk Afdeling, Statens Serum Institut, 2300 København S, Denmark. pea@ssi.dk
Source
Ugeskr Laeger. 2011 Mar 21;173(12):872-5
Date
Mar-21-2011
Language
Danish
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections - epidemiology - prevention & control
Adult
Child
Communicable disease control
Denmark - epidemiology
Greenland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Tuberculosis - drug therapy - epidemiology - prevention & control
Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant - epidemiology - prevention & control
World Health
Abstract
In Denmark the tuberculosis (TB) incidence rates per 100.000 individuals per year have decreased from 162 in the 1920s to 6. Greenland is a highly endemic country for TB with an incidence rate that parallels that of India. Nine per cent of the Greenlandic children are infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The global TB burden of disease is levelling off - even showing a small reduction in the estimated annual incidence rates. Drug resistance and HIV co-infection as well as diabetes pose great challenges in achieving the WHO/Stop TB partnership goals set out for 2015 and 2050.
PubMed ID
21419054 View in PubMed
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