This study examines the relationship between distance to green space and the level of physical activity among the population of Denmark. In addition, the relationship between distance to green space and obesity is investigated.
Data derived from the Danish National Health Interview Survey 2005, a cross-sectional survey based on a region-stratified random nationally representative sample of 21,832 Danish adults. All data are self-reported.
Respondents living more than 1 km from green space had lower odds of using green space to exercise and keep in shape compared with persons living closer than 300 m to green space (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.60-0.83). A relationship between moderate/vigorous physical activity during leisure time and distance to green space can also be found. Persons living more than 1 km from green space had higher odds of being obese (BMI = 30) than those living less than 300 m from green space (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.08-1.71).
Self-reported distance to green space is related to self-reported physical activity and obesity. To exercise and keep in shape is an important reason for visiting green space, and distance to green space is associated with moderate/vigorous physical activity in leisure time.
AIMS: To investigate the associations between green space and health, health-related quality of life and stress, respectively. METHODS: Data were derived from the 2005 Danish Health Interview Survey and are based on a region-stratified random sample of 21,832 adults. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews followed by a self-administered questionnaire, including the SF-36, which measures eight dimensions of health and the Perceived Stress Scale, which measures self-reported stress. A total of 11,238 respondents completed the interview and returned the questionnaire. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association between distance to green space and self-perceived stress. RESULTS: Danes living more than 1 km away from the nearest green space report poorer health and health-related quality of life, i.e. lower mean scores on all eight SF-36 dimensions of health than respondents living closer. Respondents living more than 1 km away from a green space have 1.42 higher odds of experiencing stress than do respondents living less than 300 m from a green space. Respondents not reporting stress are more likely to visit a green space than are respondents reporting stress. Reasons for visiting green spaces differ significantly depending on whether or not respondents experience stress. Respondents reporting stress are likely to use green spaces to reduce stress. CONCLUSIONS: An association between distance to a green space and health and health-related quality of life was found. Further, the results indicate awareness among Danes that green spaces may be of importance in managing stress and that green spaces may play an important role as health-promoting environments.
The objective of this article was to give a conceptual survey of old and new measures for a nation's state of health with special focus on new measures seeking to combine mortality with morbidity, functional, and quality of life dimensions. Internationally, the development has given rise to two different movements. One (represented by Denmark and the rest of the EU) aims to develop a large number of standardized indicators, whereas the other (represented by the WHO and the World Bank) builds on the idea that it must be possible to combine the many indicators into a single summary measure for a nation's state of health. In the summary measures, distinction is made between health expectancy and health gap measures. Attention is given to reviewing DALY (disability-adjusted life years), disability weighting, and the social value choices applied in WHO's World Health Report 2000.
Comment In: Ugeskr Laeger. 2003 Jun 23;165(26):263512886543