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Boys' behavioral inhibition and the risk of later delinquency.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature207621
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;54(9):809-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1997
Author
M. Kerr
R E Tremblay
L. Pagani
F. Vitaro
Author Affiliation
Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montreal, Quebec.
Source
Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;54(9):809-16
Date
Sep-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aggression - psychology
Anomie
Anxiety - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Child Behavior
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology
Humans
Inhibition (Psychology)
Juvenile Delinquency - prevention & control - statistics & numerical data
Male
Maternal Age
Paternal Age
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Shyness
Social Alienation - psychology
Abstract
In some studies, shyness and anxiety have protected at-risk boys from developing delinquency. In others, shyness and withdrawal have increased risk. We argue that this is because behavioral inhibition, which is the protective factor, has been confounded with social withdrawal and other constructs. Our study addresses 3 major questions: (1) is behavioral inhibition, as distinguished from social withdrawal, a protective factor in the development of delinquency; (2) does the protective effect depend on whether disruptiveness is also present; and (3) does inhibition increase the risk of later depressive symptoms even if it protects against delinquency?
The subjects were boys from low socioeconomic status areas of Montreal, Quebec. Age 10- to 12-year predictors were peer-rated inhibition, withdrawal, and disruptiveness; age 13- to 15-year outcomes were self-rated depressive symptoms and delinquency. Eight age 10- to 12-year behavioral profiles were compared with 4 age 13- to 15-year outcome profiles.
Inhibition seemed to protect disruptive and nondisruptive boys against delinquency. Disruptive boys who were noninhibited were more likely than chance to become delinquent; disruptive boys who were inhibited were not. Inhibition did not increase the risk for depression among disruptive boys. Among nondisruptive boys, only nondisruptive-inhibited boys were significantly less likely than chance to become delinquent. However, withdrawal was not protective. Disruptive-withdrawn boys were at the greatest risk for delinquency or delinquency with depressive symptoms.
Inhibition and social withdrawal, although behaviorally similar, present different risks for later outcomes and, therefore, should be differentiated conceptually and empirically.
Notes
Comment In: Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;54(9):785-99294368
PubMed ID
9294371 View in PubMed
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Development of parasomnias from childhood to early adolescence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198021
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Jul;106(1 Pt 1):67-74
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
L. Laberge
R E Tremblay
F. Vitaro
J. Montplaisir
Author Affiliation
Centre d'Etude du Sommeil, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur, Montréal, Québec, Canada.
Source
Pediatrics. 2000 Jul;106(1 Pt 1):67-74
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Anxiety
Child
Child Behavior
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Parasomnias - epidemiology - psychology
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Sex Factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
This study examines the prevalence and developmental changes of parasomnias and assesses gender differences, relationships between parasomnias, and associations with anxiety and family adversity using data collected during the course of a longitudinal study of a representative sample of children from Québec.
The present analyses are based on results available for 664 boys and 689 girls for whom mothers have completed questions concerning demographics, parasomnias, and anxiety level. For the prevalence and developmental aspects of parasomnias, prospective data were collected at annual intervals from 11 to 13 years old and retrospective data for the period between ages 3 and 10 years were collected when the children were 10 years old.
Somniloquy, leg restlessness, and sleep bruxism are the most frequent parasomnias. More girls were afflicted with leg restlessness, while enuresis and somniloquy were more common in boys. High anxiety scores were found in children suffering from night terrors, somniloquy, leg restlessness, sleep bruxism, and body rocking. Parasomnias were unrelated to the index of family adversity.
Although sleepwalking, night terrors, enuresis, and body rocking dramatically decreased during childhood, somniloquy, leg restlessness, and sleep bruxism were still highly prevalent at age 13 years, paralleling results found in adults. Sleepwalking, night terrors, and somniloquy are conditions often found together. The only robust gender difference was for enuresis. High anxiety scores in parasomnias are reported for the first time in a large, controlled study. Sociodemographic variables do not seem to play a major role in the occurrence of parasomnias.
PubMed ID
10878151 View in PubMed
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Differences and similarities in the serotonergic diathesis for suicide attempts and mood disorders: a 22-year longitudinal gene-environment study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature151424
Source
Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Aug;15(8):831-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2010
Author
J. Brezo
A. Bureau
C. Mérette
V. Jomphe
E D Barker
F. Vitaro
M. Hébert
R. Carbonneau
R E Tremblay
G. Turecki
Author Affiliation
The McGill Group for Suicide Studies, Douglas Hospital Research Centre, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.
Source
Mol Psychiatry. 2010 Aug;15(8):831-43
Date
Aug-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Analysis of Variance
Child
Child Abuse, Sexual - psychology
Disease Susceptibility
Environment
Epistasis, Genetic
Family - psychology
Female
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Models, Biological
Mood Disorders - epidemiology - genetics - psychology
Odds Ratio
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Probability
Quebec - epidemiology
Receptors, Serotonin - genetics
Risk factors
Serotonin - genetics - metabolism
Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins - genetics
Suicide, Attempted - psychology
Tryptophan Hydroxylase - genetics
Young Adult
Abstract
To investigate similarities and differences in the serotonergic diathesis for mood disorders and suicide attempts, we conducted a study in a cohort followed longitudinally for 22 years. A total of 1255 members of this cohort, which is representative of the French-speaking population of Quebec, were investigated. Main outcome measures included (1) mood disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) and suicide attempts by early adulthood; (2) odds ratios and probabilities associated with 143 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 11 serotonergic genes, acting directly or as moderators in gene-environment interactions with childhood sexual or childhood physical abuse (CPA), and in gene-gene interactions; (3) regression coefficients for putative endophenotypes for mood disorders (childhood anxiousness) and suicide attempts (childhood disruptiveness). Five genes showed significant adjusted effects (HTR2A, TPH1, HTR5A, SLC6A4 and HTR1A). Of these, HTR2A variation influenced both suicide attempts and mood disorders, although through different mechanisms. In suicide attempts, HTR2A variants (rs6561333, rs7997012 and rs1885884) were involved through interactions with histories of sexual and physical abuse whereas in mood disorders through one main effect (rs9316235). In terms of phenotype-specific contributions, TPH1 variation (rs10488683) was relevant only in the diathesis for suicide attempts. Three genes contributed exclusively to mood disorders, one through a main effect (HTR5A (rs1657268)) and two through gene-environment interactions with CPA (HTR1A (rs878567) and SLC6A4 (rs3794808)). Childhood anxiousness did not mediate the effects of HTR2A and HTR5A on mood disorders, nor did childhood disruptiveness mediate the effects of TPH1 on suicide attempts. Of the serotonergic genes implicated in mood disorders and suicidal behaviors, four exhibited phenotype-specific effects, suggesting that despite their high concordance and common genetic determinants, suicide attempts and mood disorders may also have partially independent etiological pathways. To identify where these pathways diverge, we need to understand the differential, phenotype-specific gene-environment interactions such as the ones observed in the present study, using suitably powered samples.
PubMed ID
19381154 View in PubMed
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Disruptive behavior, peer association, and conduct disorder: testing the developmental links through early intervention.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature170489
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 1999;11(2):287-304
Publication Type
Article
Date
1999
Author
F. Vitaro
M. Brendgen
L. Pagani
R E Tremblay
P. McDuff
Author Affiliation
Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montréal, Boul, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Dev Psychopathol. 1999;11(2):287-304
Date
1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - prevention & control
Behavior
Child
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Humans
Male
Maternal Age
Mental Disorders - prevention & control - psychology
Parent-Child Relations
Peer Group
Quebec
Abstract
We tested three competing models regarding the role of deviant friends in the trajectory linking early disruptiveness with later conduct problems through the use of a preventive intervention program. The program was implemented during the second and third grade. One model predicted that the program would positively affect later conduct problems by facilitating nondeviant peer association during early adolescence. The second model predicted a direct impact of the program on later conduct problems through the reduction of early disruptiveness. The third model predicted an interaction between postintervention disruptiveness and association with less deviant friends. The results showed that the program's effects on later conduct problems were mediated by the reduction in disruptiveness and by the association with less deviant friends. However, the positive effect of associating with less deviant friends depended on whether children's disruptiveness had been reduced or not by their participation in the program, thus supporting the third model. We recommend using intervention studies to test developmental models.
PubMed ID
16506535 View in PubMed
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Disruptiveness, inhibition, and withdrawal as predictors of boys' delinquency and depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211035
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Sep 20;794:367-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-20-1996
Author
M. Kerr
R E Tremblay
L. Pagani-Kurtz
F. Vitaro
Author Affiliation
Gannon University, Erie, Pennsylvania 16541-0001, USA. kerr-m@cluster.gannon.edu
Source
Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1996 Sep 20;794:367-8
Date
Sep-20-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aggression - psychology
Canada
Child
Depressive Disorder - psychology
Humans
Social Support
PubMed ID
8853618 View in PubMed
Less detail

DSM-III-R and DSM-III criteria for conduct disorder in preadolescent girls: specific but insensitive.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature212203
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996 Apr;35(4):461-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1996
Author
M. Zoccolillo
R. Tremblay
F. Vitaro
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry of Montreal Children's Hospital, Qúebec, Canada.
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1996 Apr;35(4):461-70
Date
Apr-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age of Onset
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Manuals as Topic
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales - standards
Psychometrics
Quebec - epidemiology
Sensitivity and specificity
Abstract
To determine whether DSM-III and DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder identify girls in the general population with early-onset, persistent, and pervasive antisocial behavior.
2,251 girls, representative of all girls entering kindergarten in Qúebec, were assessed using parent and teacher ratings of antisocial behavior; a subsample was then rated for the next 6 years (ages 7 to 12) by parent and teacher. At age 10 years, the girls who been rated as antisocial in kindergarten, along with a random sample of those not rated as antisocial, were assessed for DSM-III and DSM-III-R diagnoses of conduct and oppositional defiant disorder using a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children) administered to the parent, teacher, and/or child (n = 381).
Of the girls with early-onset, persistent, and pervasive antisocial behavior, 3% met DSM-III-R criteria and 22% met DSM-III criteria for conduct disorder. Conduct disorder was not diagnosed at all in girls who had not been initially rated as antisocial in kindergarten. Lowering the threshold for a DSM-III-R conduct disorder diagnosis to two symptoms and adding the criterion of violation of rules increased the rate of diagnosis to 35% in the pervasively antisocial girls but only to 1% in girls who did not have persistent antisocial behavior.
DSM-III-R criteria for conduct disorder do not identify most preadolescent girls with early-onset, pervasive, and persistent antisocial behavior. Modifications to the DSM-III-R criteria resulted in increased sensitivity without a loss of specificity.
PubMed ID
8919708 View in PubMed
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Parents' attitudes, knowledge, and behavior toward youth gambling: a five-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature192554
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2001;17(2):101-16
Publication Type
Article
Date
2001
Author
R. Ladouceur
F. Vitaro
M A Côté
Author Affiliation
Ecole de Psychologie, Université Laval, Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada G1K 7P4. Robert.Ladouceur@psy.ulaval.ca
Source
J Gambl Stud. 2001;17(2):101-16
Date
2001
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Follow-Up Studies
Gambling - psychology
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Parents - psychology
Quebec
Abstract
This study compares the attitudes, knowledge, and behavior of parents of 5- to 17-year-old children regarding youth gambling. This information was obtained through two telephone surveys conducted in 1995, and 5 years later in 2000, in the Québec City area. Survey 1, in 1995, was conducted on 279 respondents, while survey 2, in 2000, was carried out with 213 respondents. Results showed a number of changes in parents' attitudes, behavior, and knowledge concerning youth gambling: For example, parents' perception of the age of onset of gambling behavior had improved slightly at the end of the 5-year period. Furthermore, parents were more satisfied with government limitation of access to gambling, and more accurately informed about legal aspects of the sale of lottery tickets. However, the percentage of parents who failed to associate youth gambling with some of its correlates (arcade attendance, parental gambling problems, and friendship with gamblers) increased from 1995 to year 2000. The improvements that were observed suggested that parents had benefited from media-transmitted information during this period. However, the deterioration of some parental attitudes, and the stability of other variables, suggest that it is still important to educate parents about youth gambling, and to design interventions adapted to parents' needs.
PubMed ID
11705206 View in PubMed
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Personal and familial characteristics of resilient sons of male alcoholics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211397
Source
Addiction. 1996 Aug;91(8):1161-77
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1996
Author
F. Vitaro
P L Dobkin
R. Carbonneau
R E Tremblay
Author Affiliation
Research Unit on Children's Psycho-Social Maladjustment, University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
Source
Addiction. 1996 Aug;91(8):1161-77
Date
Aug-1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Achievement
Adolescent
Aggression - psychology
Alcoholism - epidemiology - psychology
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - epidemiology - psychology
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Child of Impaired Parents - psychology
Comorbidity
Family - psychology
Humans
Juvenile Delinquency - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Personality Development
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Socialization
Abstract
This study compared sons of male alcoholics (SOMAs) who had no problems with those who were abusing substances, those who had school problems, those who were delinquent and those who were multiproblem. Corresponding groups of non-SOMAs were also included. Groups were compared at ages 6, 10, 12 and 14 years on teacher- and peer-rated aggressiveness, hyperactivity, inattention, anxiety and prosociality; parent-rated temperament; parents' disciplinary practices; school performance; family socio-economic status; self-reported substance (ab)use and delinquency; and school performance (from school records). Differences between SOMAs and non-SOMAs were small. According to teachers and peers, no problem SOMAs and non-SOMAs were less aggressive-oppositional, inattentive and hyperactive than problem SOMAs and non-SOMAs. These effects differed as a function of age, however. Also, no problem SOMAs and non-SOMAs performed better in school than boys in the problem groups. We discuss the relevance of these findings for identifying factors that render children resilient and for early screening to select truly at risk SOMAs for prevention programs.
PubMed ID
8828244 View in PubMed
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Preventing disruptive boys from becoming heavy substance users during adolescence: a longitudinal study of familial and peer-related protective factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature141717
Source
Addict Behav. 2010 Dec;35(12):1074-82
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
J-S Fallu
M. Janosz
F N Brière
A. Descheneaux
F. Vitaro
R E Tremblay
Author Affiliation
Ecole de Psychoéducation, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal (Quebec), Canada H3C 3J7. jean-sebastien.fallu@umontreal.ca
Source
Addict Behav. 2010 Dec;35(12):1074-82
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child Behavior Disorders - psychology
Friends
Humans
Interpersonal Relations
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Parent-Child Relations
Peer Group
Quebec
Substance-Related Disorders - prevention & control
Abstract
Childhood disruptiveness is one of the most important antecedents of heavy substance use in adolescence, especially among boys. The first aim of the present study is to verify whether parental monitoring and friend conventionality protect disruptive boys from engaging in heavy substance-use in adolescence. The second purpose is to examine whether these protective effects are strengthened by attachment to parents or friends respectively. Finally, the third objective is to verify whether the expected protective effect of parental monitoring could be mediated through exposure to conventional friends. A sample of 1037 boys from low socioeconomic neighbourhoods was followed from childhood (age 6) to adolescence (age 15). Parent, teacher, and self-reported measures were used to measure disruptiveness, parental monitoring, family attachment, friend conventionality, and attachment to friends. Results suggest that parental monitoring and friends' conventionality mitigated the relationship between childhood disruptiveness and adolescence heavy substance use. Exposure to conventional friends further mediated the protective effect of parent monitoring. The postulated enhancement of attachment quality on the protective effect of parents or peer behaviors was not confirmed, but low attachment was related to heavier substance use in highly monitored disruptive boys. Parental monitoring, family attachment, and peer conventionality are factors amenable to intervention, and thus represent promising targets for future prevention strategies aimed at-risk boys. Our results underscore the importance of simultaneously addressing the behavioral and the affective dimensions in interventions with parents.
PubMed ID
20688439 View in PubMed
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Problem drug and alcohol use in a community sample of adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201500
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;38(7):900-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-1999
Author
M. Zoccolillo
F. Vitaro
R E Tremblay
Author Affiliation
Research Group on Social Maladaptation in Children, McGill University, Montréal, Québec, Canada. mdmz@musica.mcgill.ca
Source
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999 Jul;38(7):900-7
Date
Jul-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - drug effects
Alcohol-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cannabis - adverse effects
Female
Hallucinogens - adverse effects
Health Surveys
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Prevalence
Quebec - epidemiology
Sampling Studies
Self Disclosure
Sex Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Epidemiological studies of illegal drug use in adolescents have examined frequency of drug use; a few have examined diagnoses or symptoms of drug abuse or dependence. This study examined problem use of illegal drugs, about which very little is known.
Adolescents (879 boys and 929 girls), mean age of 15.7 years, representative of the province of Québec, Canada, were asked about problem use of alcohol and illegal drugs.
Almost one third had used illegal drugs more than 5 times. Of this group, more than 70% reported going to school high on drugs, and the majority reported playing sports while high and using drugs in the morning. In these drugs users, 94% of the boys and 85% of the girls reported at least 1 problem and two thirds of the boys and more than half of the girls reported 3 or more problems from illegal drugs. Marijuana was used by almost all subjects at the time of maximal drug use; hallucinogens were the second most commonly used drug. Alcohol was used more frequently than illegal drugs, but problem use was less common.
Problem drug use is the norm among the large minority who use illegal drugs more than a few times, and drug use is commonly incorporated into 2 major routine activities of teenagers--school and sports.
PubMed ID
10405509 View in PubMed
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10 records – page 1 of 1.