Epidemiological and laboratory studies have implied that the environment during early childhood is important for the risk of developing atopic disorders. In this study we analyzed the prevalence of asthma, hayfever and eczema among 1901 internationally adopted young men at the military-induction medical examination in relation to indicators of their early childhood environment. The adopted young men who came to Sweden before 2 years of age suffered from asthma, hayfever and eczema significantly more often than those who came to Sweden between 2 and 6 years of age; the risk ratios (RR) were 1.6, 2.5 and 2.1, respectively. The young men who were born in the Far East were identified as being particularly susceptible to the development of hayfever and eczema, with RRs of 1.3 and 1.7. This study demonstrates that the environment during the first 6 years of life has a profound influence on the risk of suffering from atopic disorders as young adults.
Small studies suggest that subjects who have undergone bariatric surgery are at increased risk of suicide, alcohol and substance use disorders. This population-based cohort study aimed to assess the incidence of treatment for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and attempted suicide after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB).
All patients who underwent primary RYGB in Sweden between 2001 and 2010 were included. Incidence of hospital admission for alcohol and substance use disorders, depression and suicide attempt was measured, along with the number of drugs prescribed. This cohort was compared with a large age-matched, non-obese reference cohort based on the Swedish population. Inpatient care and prescribed drugs registers were used.
Before RYGB surgery, women, but not men, were at higher risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use disorder compared with the reference cohort. After surgery, this was the case for both sexes. The risk of being diagnosed and treated for depression remained raised after surgery. Suicide attempts were significantly increased after RYGB. The adjusted hazard ratio for attempted suicide in the RYGB cohort after surgery compared with the general non-obese population was 2·85 (95 per cent c.i. 2·40 to 3·39).
Patients who have undergone RYGB are at an increased risk of being diagnosed with alcohol and substance use, with an increased rate of attempted suicide compared with a non-obese general population cohort.
Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) measurements were performed in a Danish population of 295 males and 275 females aged 19-21 years. Individualised day and night periods were defined from the subjects own recording of bedtime and rising on the day of their ABP measurements. During these individualised periods the ABP values for daytime, night-time and for the whole 24-h period were measured. The mean +/- s.d. values for systolic/diastolic ABP for the whole population were (124+/-11)/(70+/-7) mm Hg in the daytime, (106+/-12)/(60+/-9) mm Hg in the night-time, and (120+/-11)/(68+/-7) mm Hg in the whole 24-h period. Males had a mean systolic ABP of 9 mm Hg and mean diastolic ABP of 5 mm Hg higher than females. In males mean +/- s.d. systolic/diastolic ABP values in the daytime were (129+/-10)/(73+/-7) mm Hg, in the night-time (111+/-12)/(63+/-8) mm Hg, and in the whole 24-h period (125+/-10)/(71+/-7) mm Hg. The corresponding values in females were (119+/-10)/(68+/-6) mm Hg, (103+/-11)/(57+/-8) mmHg, and (115+/-10)/(66+/-6) mm Hg, respectively. In conclusion this study provides sex-specific normal values for ABP in a 19 to 21-year-old age group based on individualised daytime and night-time periods.
BACKGROUND: Although urban place of birth has been identified as a risk factor for schizophrenia, the extent to which this association is mediated by socially patterned risk factors such as obstetric complications and childhood socio-economic position is unclear. The diagnostic specificity of the association within the clinical psychotic syndromes is also unclear. METHOD: A population cohort of 696025 males and females, born in Sweden between 1973 and 1980 and with linked birth and socio-economic data was followed up from age 16 for up to 9.8 years. Hospitalized cases of schizophrenia and other non-affective psychosis were identified from the Swedish Inpatient Discharge Register. We examined associations of these disorders with a three-level measure of urbanicity of birthplace before and after controlling for measures of foetal nutrition, obstetric complications and level of maternal education. RESULTS: Urban compared to rural birthplace was associated both with increased risk of adult onset schizophrenia (hazard ratio 1.34, CI 0.91-1.96) and other non-affective psychoses (hazard ratio 1.63, CI 1.18-2.26). None of these associations was greatly affected by adjustment for obstetric complications or maternal educational level. In the group of other non-affective psychoses urban-rural differences in disease risk were strongest among those born in the winter months. CONCLUSION: Urbanization of birthplace is associated with increased risk of non-affective psychosis but this is not confined to narrowly defined cases. The magnitude of the association in Sweden is lower than that reported in other studies. Causal factors underlying this association appear to operate independently of risks associated with obstetric complications and parental educational status.
Previous investigations of the association of schizophrenia with patterns of pre- and post-natal growth have been based on small numbers of cases or have not taken account of the effects of prematurity on birthweight. We investigated the association of fetal growth with schizophrenia in a large cohort of Swedish males and females. We linked data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register (1973-1980), Inpatient and Discharge Register (1988-2002), Military Service Conscription Register (1990-1997), and the Population and Housing Censuses (1970 and 1990). Altogether 719,476 males and females were followed up from the age of 16 for a mean of 9.9 years. There were 736 incident cases of schizophrenia. Even in models that did not control for gestational age there was little evidence of an association between birthweight and schizophrenia (hazard ratio per kg increase in birthweight: 0.90 (95% CI 0.78 to 1.03); the hazard ratio in babies weighing 36 week gestation) babies. In males, low body mass index and short height at age 18 were associated with increased risk. There is some evidence that patterns of risk in relation to fetal growth differ depending on post-natal growth patterns: the increased risk associated with low body mass index was restricted to long babies who became light adults. The exposures underlying these associations and the biological mechanisms mediating them require clarification.
Cross-sectional studies have shown that people with obesity and overweight report lower health related quality of life (HRQoL). With a lack of longitudinal studies, this study aims to assess the association between eight-year weight change and HRQoL measured by the EQ-5D instrument and to investigate whether the association differs with regard to baseline body mass index (BMI).
A population-based survey was conducted among a random sample of 31,182 individuals from Stockholm County aged 18-84years in 2002 and reassessed in 2010 and supplemented by record linkage with regional and national registers. Multivariate Poisson regression and linear regression were conducted with adjustments for socio-demographic and health-related variables and baseline BMI category as effect modifier for the association between weight change and HRQoL.
Individuals with overweight and obesity respectively have 0.014 and 0.039 lower EQ-5D indexes compared to those being normal weight. Over the eight-year follow-up, 17.6% gained moderately (=5% body weight) and 13.9% gained heavily (=10% body weight) in weight. In the fully adjusted analysis, heavy weight gain was associated with a significantly lower overall EQ-5D index and an increased risk of reporting impairment in all but one EQ-5D dimensions irrespective of baseline BMI category. Weight reduction had no significant preventive effect.
Next to obesity status itself, weight gain leads to impairment in HRQoL irrespective of BMI category at baseline while eight year weight loss seems not to have the reversed effect on HRQoL, emphasizing the importance of primary prevention of weight gain.
BACKGROUND: Exercise testing may be of value in identifying a group of children at high risk of subsequently developing respiratory symptoms. As few longitudinal studies have investigated this issue, the bronchial hyperresponsiveness to exercise in asymptomatic children was evaluated as a risk factor for developing asthma related symptoms in young adulthood. METHODS: A community based sample of 1369 schoolchildren, first investigated in 1985 at a mean age of 9.7 years, was followed up after a mean of 10.5 years. Nine hundred and twenty children (67%) were asymptomatic in childhood and 777 (84.9%) of these were re-investigated at follow up. At the first examination a maximum progressive exercise test on a bicycle ergometer was used to induce airway narrowing. The forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after exercise was considered abnormal if the percentage fall in FEV1 was more than 5% of the highest fall in the reference subjects characterised by having no previous history of asthma or asthma related symptoms. The threshold for a positive test was 8.6% of pre-exercise FEV1. RESULTS: One hundred and three subjects (13%) had wheeze within the last year at follow up and, of these, nine (9%) had been hyperresponsive to exercise in 1985. One hundred and seventy subjects (22%) had non-infectious cough within the previous year, 11 of whom (6%) had been hyperresponsive to exercise in 1985. Multiple regression analysis showed that subjects with hyperresponsiveness to exercise had an increased risk of developing wheeze compared with subjects with a normal response to exercise when the fall in FEV1 after exercise was included as a variable (threshold odds ratio (OR) 2.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 5.5)). The trend was not significant when exercise induced bronchospasm was included as a continuous variable (OR 1.02 (95% CI 0.97 to 1.06)). CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic children who are hyperresponsive to exercise are at increased risk of developing new symptoms related to wheezing but the predictive value of exercise testing for individuals is low.
BACKGROUND: Mortality is lower in obese patients who have undergone surgery for obesity than in those who have not. The majority of patients in these studies have been women. Perioperative mortality is known to be higher among men, and this may counterbalance the survival advantage seen after surgery. This cohort study compared mortality among operated obese patients, non-operated obese patients and a general control cohort of men. METHODS: The study was based on record linkage between Swedish registries. An operated obese, a non-operated obese and a general control cohort were created. The two non-operated cohorts were assigned pseudosurgery dates. Data regarding preoperative and postoperative morbidity were collected, as well as mortality data. RESULTS: Hazard ratios were calculated for mortality between the cohorts adjusting for preoperative morbidity and age. Comparison of all-cause mortality for the obese surgical and non-surgical cohorts gave an adjusted mortality risk of 0.7 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 0.5 to 1.0) (P = 0.039); the adjusted mortality risk was 1.5 (95 per cent c.i. 1.1 to 2.0) (P = 0.011) when the obese surgical cohort was compared with the general control cohort. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery reduces overall mortality in obese men.
Whether the bioavailability of growth hormone depends on the concentration or formulation of the preparation was evaluated in 18 growth hormone-deficient patients. The design was a single-blinded, randomized cross-over study, where the patients were given a single, fixed dose subcutaneous injection of growth homrone (3 IU/m2) of 3 different preparations: (1) 4 IU/ml in a bicarbonate buffer dissolved in 0.9% benzyl alcohol (approximately 1.37 mg/ml), (2) 5.9 IU/ml in a phosphate buffer dissolved in 1.5% benzyl alcohol (approximately 2 mg/ml) and (3) 11 7 IU/ml in a phosphate buffer dissolved in 1.5% benzyl alcohol (approximately 4 mg/ml). Conventional growth hormone-therapy was withdrawn 2 days before each study period. Blood samples were drawn over a 24-hr period and assessed for growth hormone, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), insulin and glucose. The geometric mean values (+/- geometric S.D) of the relative absorption fractions were F5.9 IU/4 IU = AUC5.9 IU/AUC4 IU = (+/- 1.139) (P = 0.66), F11.7 IU/AUC4 IU = AUC11.7 IU/AUC4 IU (1.14 +/- 1.21) (P = 0.009) AND F11.7 IU/5.9 IU = AUC11.7 IU/AUC5.9 IU = 1.12 (+/- 1.17) (P = 0.005), respectively. The 90% confidence intervals were contained within the limits of 0.80-1.25 accepted for bioequivalence. Geometric mean values (+/- geometric S.D.) of the relative observed maximum concentration, Cmax was for Cmax 5.9 IU/Cmax 4 IU = 1.04 (+/- 1.19) (P = 0.32), Cmax 11.7 IU/Cmax 4 IU = 1.24 (+/- 1.21) (P = 0.0002) and Cmax 11.7 IU/Cmax 5.9 IU = 1.19 (+/- 1.29) (P = 0.012). The median and the range values for the observed time to reach Cmax was tmax 5.9 IU/tmax 4 IU = 0.63 (0.04-1.00), tmax 11.7 IU/tmax 4 IU = 0.59 (0.06-1.0) and tmax 11.7 IU/tmax 5.9 IU = 0.90 (0.51-18.00). There were no significant differences in IGF-I, glucose and insulin profiles. Based on the upper limits of the 90% confidence intervals for relative AUC's the conclusion is that the three different preparations were bioequivalent.