Skip header and navigation

4 records – page 1 of 1.

Adaptive governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations in Alaska.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113760
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 4;110(23):9320-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-4-2013
Author
Robin Bronen
F Stuart Chapin
Author Affiliation
Resilience and Adaptation Program, Alaska Institute for Justice, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK 99775, USA. rbronen@yahoo.com
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 4;110(23):9320-5
Date
Jun-4-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alaska
Climate change
Conservation of Natural Resources - methods
Consumer Participation
Emigration and Immigration - statistics & numerical data
Environmental Policy
Humans
Residence Characteristics
Abstract
This article presents governance and institutional strategies for climate-induced community relocations. In Alaska, repeated extreme weather events coupled with climate change-induced coastal erosion impact the habitability of entire communities. Community residents and government agencies concur that relocation is the only adaptation strategy that can protect lives and infrastructure. Community relocation stretches the financial and institutional capacity of existing governance institutions. Based on a comparative analysis of three Alaskan communities, Kivalina, Newtok, and Shishmaref, which have chosen to relocate, we examine the institutional constraints to relocation in the United States. We identify policy changes and components of a toolkit that can facilitate community-based adaptation when environmental events threaten people's lives and protection in place is not possible. Policy changes include amendment of the Stafford Act to include gradual geophysical processes, such as erosion, in the statutory definition of disaster and the creation of an adaptive governance framework to allow communities a continuum of responses from protection in place to community relocation. Key components of the toolkit are local leadership and integration of social and ecological well-being into adaptation planning.
Notes
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 May;1196:1-35420593524
Cites: Environ Manage. 2008 Apr;41(4):487-50018228089
PubMed ID
23690592 View in PubMed
Less detail

Challenges to adaptation in northernmost Europe as a result of global climate change.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature143358
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):81-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2010
Author
Christer Nilsson
Roland Jansson
E Carina H Keskitalo
Tatiana Vlassova
Marja-Liisa Sutinen
Jon Moen
F Stuart Chapin
Author Affiliation
Landscape Ecology Group, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, 901 87 Umeå, Sweden. christer.nilsson@emg.umu.se
Source
Ambio. 2010 Feb;39(1):81-4
Date
Feb-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adaptation, Physiological
Arctic Regions
Climate change
Commerce
Conservation of Natural Resources
Europe
Finland
Geography
Humans
Norway
Russia
Socioeconomic Factors
Sweden
World Health
Notes
Cites: Ambio. 2006 Jun;35(4):198-20216944645
Cites: Ambio. 2006 Jun;35(4):176-8116944642
Cites: Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1134:201-1218566095
Cites: Sci Am. 2007 Jun;296(6):4317663223
PubMed ID
20496656 View in PubMed
Less detail

Fire-severity effects on plant-fungal interactions after a novel tundra wildfire disturbance: implications for arctic shrub and tree migration.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature272854
Source
BMC Ecol. 2016;16(1):25
Publication Type
Article
Date
2016
Author
Rebecca E Hewitt
Teresa N Hollingsworth
F. Stuart Chapin Iii
D. Lee Taylor
Source
BMC Ecol. 2016;16(1):25
Date
2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Vegetation change in high latitude tundra ecosystems is expected to accelerate due to increased wildfire activity. High-severity fires increase the availability of mineral soil seedbeds, which facilitates recruitment, yet fire also alters soil microbial composition, which could significantly impact seedling establishment.
We investigated the effects of fire severity on soil biota and associated effects on plant performance for two plant species predicted to expand into Arctic tundra. We inoculated seedlings in a growth chamber experiment with soils collected from the largest tundra fire recorded in the Arctic and used molecular tools to characterize root-associated fungal communities. Seedling biomass was significantly related to the composition of fungal inoculum. Biomass decreased as fire severity increased and the proportion of pathogenic fungi increased.
Our results suggest that effects of fire severity on soil biota reduces seedling performance and thus we hypothesize that in certain ecological contexts fire-severity effects on plant-fungal interactions may dampen the expected increases in tree and shrub establishment after tundra fire.
Notes
Cites: Mol Ecol. 1999 Nov;8(11):1837-5010620228
Cites: Nature. 2001 May 31;411(6837):546-711385559
Cites: Nature. 2002 May 2;417(6884):67-7011986666
Cites: Science. 2005 Oct 28;310(5748):657-6016179434
Cites: PLoS One. 2008;3(3):e000174418320025
Cites: New Phytol. 2008;180(2):491-50018657211
Cites: Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 May 12;106(19):7899-90419416888
Cites: Ecol Lett. 2009 Oct;12(10):1040-919682007
Cites: Ecology. 2009 Sep;90(9):2352-919769113
Cites: J Microbiol Methods. 2010 Feb;80(2):206-819963016
Cites: Nature. 2010 Aug 5;466(7307):752-520581819
Cites: New Phytol. 2011 May;190(3):783-9321244432
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2011 May;77(10):3351-921441343
Cites: Methods Mol Biol. 2011;722:141-5521590418
Cites: Nature. 2011 Jul 28;475(7357):489-9221796209
Cites: Mol Ecol. 2012 Aug;21(16):4122-3622703050
Cites: FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2012 Oct;82(1):157-6822587673
Cites: Mol Ecol. 2014 Jul;23(13):3258-7224689939
PubMed ID
27169473 View in PubMed
Less detail

The potential for mycobiont sharing between shrubs and seedlings to facilitate tree establishment after wildfire at Alaska arctic treeline.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature281635
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Apr 12;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-12-2017
Author
Rebecca E Hewitt
F Stuart Chapin
Teresa N Hollingsworth
D Lee Taylor
Source
Mol Ecol. 2017 Apr 12;
Date
Apr-12-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Root-associated fungi, particularly ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), are critical symbionts of all boreal tree species. Although climatically driven increases in wildfire frequency and extent have been hypothesized to increase vegetation transitions from tundra to boreal forest, fire reduces mycorrhizal inoculum. Therefore, changes in mycobiont inoculum may potentially limit tree-seedling establishment beyond current treeline. We investigated whether ectomycorrhizal shrubs that resprout after fire support similar fungal taxa to those that associate with tree seedlings that establish naturally after fire. We then assessed whether mycobiont identity correlates with the biomass or nutrient status of these tree seedlings. The majority of fungal taxa observed on shrub and seedling root systems were EMF, with some dark septate endophytes and ericoid mycorrhizal taxa. Seedlings and adjacent shrubs associated with similar arrays of fungal taxa, and there were strong correlations between the structure of seedling and shrub fungal communities. These results show that resprouting postfire shrubs support fungal taxa compatible with tree seedlings that establish after wildfire. Shrub taxon, distance to the nearest shrub and fire severity influenced the similarity between seedling and shrub fungal communities. Fungal composition was correlated with both foliar C:N ratio and seedling biomass and was one of the strongest explanatory variables predicting seedling biomass. While correlative, these results suggest that mycobionts are important to nutrient acquisition and biomass accrual of naturally establishing tree seedlings at treeline and that mycobiont taxa shared by resprouting postfire vegetation may be a significant source of inoculum for tree-seedling establishment beyond current treeline.
PubMed ID
28401610 View in PubMed
Less detail