PURPOSE: To investigate the usefulness of the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) in a day treatment programme for clients with rheumatoid arthritis. METHOD: The study was conducted in two parts. In the first part rehabilitation without changes in the programme was performed (n = 16). After that the COPM was introduced to all team members. In part two the COPM was used (n = 40). Clients' experiences of participation in the process were studied via a structured interview 2 - 4 weeks after discharge in both parts. Qualitative interviews were conducted with team members before part one and after completion of part two. RESULTS: Staff expressed that the COPM improved client participation in the rehabilitation process. Goals were formulated distinctly, and focused on activity and performance rather than function. Team conferences were focused on the client's needs. Outcome was considered clear and evident to the client. The changes in client routines demands thorough introduction, support and involvement, and takes time. Involvement and motivation for changing practice were difficult to obtain, this could be a result of a large staff turnover during the data collection period. CONCLUSIONS: The COPM should be seen as an aid to ensuring client participation in the goal formulation process, and facilitating treatment planning and evaluation of outcome.
This study investigates how cognition influences activities of daily living and health-related quality of life in 85-year-olds in Sweden (n = 373). Data collection included a postal questionnaire comprising demographics and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D. The ability to perform personal activities of daily living (PADL) was assessed during a home visit that included administering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive impairment was shown in 108 individuals (29%). The majority were independent with respect to PADL. A larger number of participants with cognitive impairment reported that they needed assistance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) compared to the group without cognitive impairment. Impaired cognition was significantly related to problems with IADL. Significant but low correlations were found between cognition and health-related quality of life - higher ratings on perceived quality of life correlated with higher results on the MMSE.
Background: Fitness-to-drive assessment is a growing area for occupational therapists. There are few off-road tests specially developed to assess fitness to drive, and several cognitive tests have no age-specific norms.Aims/objectives: The aim was to identify and describe age-related norm values for the Trail Making Test, Nordic Stroke Driver Screening Assessment and Useful Field of View test, and to study inter-correlation between test results.Materials and methods: The sample included 410 volunteers; 149 men and 261 women, mean age 52?±?16.8 years. Commonly used off-road tests were used: TMT A and B, UFOV and NorSDSA.Results: Normative data for the specific subtests and total score for NorSDSA and UFOV are provided and presented in four age groups. Age correlated with the results for most of the subtests.Conclusions: Off-road cognitive test scores are necessary and valuable for occupational therapists in their contribution to the final decision on continued driving. In clinical practice, it can be difficult to interpret cognitive test results when working with driving assessments. Age-based norm values are suggested to be a way to provide clinicians with a benchmark against which scores can be compared.Significance: Age-based norms can guide occupational therapists working with fitness to drive.
The aim was to evaluate whether occupational therapy interventions in acute care could improve the elderly patient's perception of ability to manage at home after discharge. A pilot study was performed, including 22 patients in the experimental group and 19 in the control group. Occupational therapy interventions were conducted in the experimental group concerning personal care, information, prescription of assistive devices, planning of discharge, and reporting to primary care or community care. The control group was given no occupational therapy interventions. Structured interviews were performed on discharge and at a follow-up in about 14 weeks after discharge. The two groups were comparable concerning gender, age, days of care, and diagnoses. Patients in the experimental group scored lower on mental health and were more anxious on discharge. However, there was no difference between the groups in managing at home after discharge. Patients in the control group had greater need of further contacts with healthcare after discharge. Due to the small sample interpretations must be made with caution. The findings indicate that occupational therapy interventions in acute care might have a positive effect from the perspective of the elderly patient. These results need to be confirmed in a larger study.
The purpose of this study was to investigate everyday technology use in the homes of 86-year-old individuals in Sweden regarding usage, benefits or perceived problems and to study their perception of technical development and its influence on everyday life.
The design was both quantitative and qualitative. An interview was conducted during a home visit by an occupational therapist, using a questionnaire with items that included demographics and everyday technology. In addition, a qualitative section was performed, based on an interview guide. A total of 274 people participated.
The results indicate that watching TV was important for almost all 86-year-old individuals. This medium, combined with reading newspapers, was important for obtaining news. The most common problems in the use of everyday technology were related to visual or hearing impairments or operating difficulties. References to the Internet for further information were perceived as problematic for individuals without access to a computer. Another difficulty was automated telephone services. Cognitive deficits impeded everyday technology use and increased perceived problems.
Access to information and services is important for being able to be an active participant in society. Everyday technology is an area that should be addressed by occupational therapists to facilitate everyday life.
To determine whether being overweight or obese is associated with significant health outcomes in an 85-year-old population.
A cross-sectional population-based study.
Three hundred thirty-eight people born in 1922 were identified using the local authority's register.
Data related to sociodemographic characteristics, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), assistance use, and the presence of diseases were collected using a postal questionnaire. Anthropometry and functional status were assessed during home and geriatric clinic visits. Diseases were double-checked in the electronic medical records, and information about health service consumption was obtained from the local healthcare register.
Overweight (body mass index (BMI) 25.0-29.9 kg/m(2)) and obese (BMI = 30.0 kg/m(2)) participants perceived more difficulty performing instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and had more comorbidity than their normal-weight counterparts (BMI 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2)), but their overall HRQoL and health service costs did not differ from those of normal-weight participants. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, being overweight did not influence IADLs or any comorbidity, but obese participants were more likely to perceive greater difficulty in performing outdoor activities (odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-4) and cleaning (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2) than their normal-weight counterparts. Although obesity was also associated with multimorbidity (OR = 3, 95% CI = 1.2-8), the health service cost of each case of multimorbidity (n = 251) was highest in normal-weight participants and nearly three times as much as in obese participants (ratio: 2.9, 95% CI = 1.1-8.1).
For 85-year-olds, being obese, as opposed to overweight, is associated with self-reported activity limitations and comorbidities. Overweight older adults living in their own homes in this population had well-being similar to that of those with normal weight.
Department of Geriatric Medicine, University Hospital, SE-581 85, Linköping, Sweden; Clinical Memory Research Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Lund University, P.O. Box 157, SE-221 00 Lund, Sweden.
The aim of this population-based study was to (1) describe living conditions and actual health care utilization among 85 year olds; (2) determine factors that affect hospital admissions in this age. The study was conducted on 85-year-old residents in Linköping municipality, Sweden. The data collected included medical records, health care utilization during the preceding 12 months and a postal questionnaire on assistance, assistive technology, functional impairment, feelings of loneliness, worries and health-related quality of life measured by the EQ-5D. Out of 650 eligible individuals, 496 (78% of those alive) participated. Despite the prevalence of multi-morbidity (68%) and mental discomfort, the majority managed self-care (85%), usual activities (74%) and had high (>60/100) self-rated health evaluated by a visual analog scale (VAS). The non-hospitalized group reported a better health status than the hospitalized group in terms of medical aspects, living conditions and subjective estimation. Factors associated with in-patient care were an increased number of general practitioner visits, more assistive technology, community assistance, multimorbidity and/or diagnosed congestive heart failure and arrhythmia.
Few studies have examined health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with respect to daily living and health factors for relatively healthy elderly individuals. To this end, this study examines 85-year-olds' reported HRQoL in relation to social support, perceived health, chronic diseases, healthcare use and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Data were collected from 360 participants (55% response rate) between March 2007 and March 2008 using a postal questionnaire and a home visit interview. HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D-3L. For the items in the EQ-5D-3L, more problems were related to lower HRQoL. Restricted mobility and occurrence of pain/discomfort was common. Lower HRQoL was associated with increased risk for depression, increased use of medication, increased number of chronic diseases and more problems with IADL. Healthcare use and healthcare costs were correlated with lower HRQoL. HRQoL is of importance to healthcare providers and must be considered together with IADL in the elderly population when planning interventions. These should take into account the specific needs and resources of the older individuals.
The aim of this study was to identify work-related stress factors that contributed to work-related stress among Swedish occupational therapists and to investigate the association between work-related stress, demographic factors, and perceived overall stress.
A postal questionnaire and a letter of invitation were sent to 807 Swedish occupational therapists, selected at random and representing 10% of occupational therapists working in Sweden. The response rate was 59%. A stress index presenting 49 stress factors graded on a scale from 1 (indicating no source of stress) to 6 (definitely a source of stress) was included. In addition, the level of perceived overall stress during the last two weeks was scored on a rating scale with the end points 0 (no stress) and 10 (extreme stress).
The main findings indicated that lack of resources and lack of time were the main stressors. "Working at a superficial level due to lack of time" was the only variable associated with high overall stress when both work-related and personal factors were included. Professional identity and clarity concerning the role were graded low with regard to stress.
Work-related stress is just one aspect of the overall stress experienced but knowledge about its consequences highlights the importance of further studies.
The aim was to evaluate whether the use of a client-centred instrument, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM), affects the patients' perception of active participation in the rehabilitation process. The study included 155 patients in the experiment group and 55 in the control group, within geriatric, stroke, and home rehabilitation. The COPM was used in the experiment group. A structured interview was performed within 2-4 weeks after discharge with 88 patients in the experiment group and 30 patients in the control group. The results show significant differences between the groups. More patients in the experiment group perceived that treatment goals were identified, were able to recall the goals, felt that they were active participants in the goal formulation process, and perceived themselves better able to manage after completed rehabilitation compared with patients in the control group. The study indicates that the COPM improves client participation in the rehabilitation process.