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Carbon prices and incentives for technological development.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature266280
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Mar 1;150:393-403
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1-2015
Author
Tommy Lundgren
Per-Olov Marklund
Eva Samakovlis
Wenchao Zhou
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Mar 1;150:393-403
Date
Mar-1-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollution - prevention & control
Carbon Dioxide - analysis
Economic development
Humans
Industrial Waste - economics - legislation & jurisprudence
Models, Theoretical
Paper
Sweden
Taxes
Abstract
There is concern that the carbon prices generated through climate policies are too low to create the incentives necessary to stimulate technological development. This paper empirically analyzes how the Swedish carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and the European Union emission trading system (EU ETS) have affected productivity development in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1998-2008. A Luenberger total factor productivity (TFP) indicator is computed using data envelopment analysis. The results show that climate policy had a modest impact on technological development in the pulp and paper industry, and if significant it was negative. The price of fossil fuels, on the contrary, seems to have created important incentives for technological development. Hence, the results suggest that the carbon prices faced by the industry through EU ETS and the CO2 tax have been too low. Even though the data for this study is specific for Sweden, the models and results are applicable internationally. When designing policy to mitigate CO2 emissions, it is vital that the policy creates a carbon price that is high enough - otherwise the pressure on technological development will not be sufficiently strong.
PubMed ID
25560661 View in PubMed
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Does remediation save lives? - on the cost of cleaning up arsenic-contaminated sites in Sweden.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97113
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Jul 15;408(16):3085-91
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-15-2010
Author
Johanna Forslund
Eva Samakovlis
Maria Vredin Johansson
Lars Barregard
Author Affiliation
Environmental Economics, National Institute of Economic Research, Stockholm, Sweden.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2010 Jul 15;408(16):3085-91
Date
Jul-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Sweden has only just begun remediation of its many contaminated sites, a process that will cost an estimated SEK 60,000 million (USD 9100 million). Although the risk assessment method, carried out by the Swedish EPA, is driven by health effects, it does not consider actual exposure. Instead, the sites are assessed based on divergence from guideline values. This paper uses an environmental medicine approach that takes exposure into account to analyse how cancer risks on and near arsenic-contaminated sites are implicitly valued in the remediation process. The results show that the level of ambition is high. At 23 contaminated sites, the cost per life saved varies from SEK 287 million to SEK 1,835,000 million, despite conservative calculations that in fact probably underestimate the costs. It is concluded that if environmental health risks are to be reduced, there are probably other areas where economic resources can be used more cost-effectively.
PubMed ID
20439110 View in PubMed
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