Precocious increase in adrenal androgen production is the hallmark of premature adrenarche (PA). Adrenal androgens have anabolic properties.
The objective of the study was to test whether body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) are altered in PA and study whether genetic variation in low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) affects BMD in PA.
This was a cross-sectional study.
The study was conducted at a university hospital.
The study included 126 prepubertal children (64 with PA, 10 boys; 62 non-PA controls, 10 boys). Femoral neck and lumbar spine areal and calculated volumetric BMD (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), body composition (bioimpedance), serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and markers of bone turnover and calcium homeostasis were compared between the PA and control groups. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms of LRP5 were determined and associated with BMD.
Children with PA had higher femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD(areal) than the controls (Z-score 0.56 vs. -0.09, P
Comparison of gated single-photon emission computed tomography with magnetic resonance imaging for evaluation of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.
To prospectively compare the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), end-systolic volume (LVESV), and ejection fraction (LVEF) obtained from gated perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) with those obtained from cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC). Twenty-one patients with IDC (6 females) with a median age of 45 years (range 17-65) were scheduled for (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin-GSPECT and MRI within a 3 h interval. In both methods LV volumes were analyzed with the Simpson method. Both GSPECT and MRI were successfully completed in 90% of patients. Close linear correlations were observed between the two methods in LVEDV (R = 0.918; P
Comment In: Int J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2011 Apr;27(4):635-820924791
Previous studies have shown an association between elevated concentrations of particulate air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the association between daily variation of ultrafine and fine particulate air pollution and cardiac autonomic control measured as heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in a large multicenter study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, Erfurt, Germany, and Helsinki, Finland. Elderly subjects (n=37 in Amsterdam, n=47 in both Erfurt and Helsinki) with stable coronary artery disease were followed for 6 months with biweekly clinical visits. During the visits, ambulatory electrocardiogram was recorded during a standardized protocol including a 5-min period of paced breathing. Time and frequency domain analyses of HRV were performed. A statistical model was built for each center separately. The mean 24-h particle number concentration (NC) (1,000/cm(3)) of ultrafine particles (diameter 0.01-0.1 microm) was 17.3 in Amsterdam, 21.1 in Erfurt, and 17.0 in Helsinki. The corresponding values for PM2.5 were 20.0, 23.1, and 12.7 microg/m(3). During paced breathing, ultrafine particles, NO(2), and CO were at lags of 0-2 days consistently and significantly associated with decreased low-to-high frequency ratio (LF/HF), a measure of sympathovagal balance. In a pooled analysis across the centers, LF/HF decreased by 13.5% (95% confidence interval: -20.1%, -7.0%) for each 10,000/cm(3) increase in the NC of ultrafine particles (2-day lag). PM2.5 was associated with reduced HF and increased LF/HF in Helsinki, whereas the opposite was true in Erfurt, and in Amsterdam, there were no clear associations between PM2.5 and HRV. The results suggest that the cardiovascular effects of ambient ultrafine and PM2.5 can differ from each other and that their effect may be modified by the characteristics of the exposed subjects and the sources of PM2.5.
The outcome of surgery in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and normal high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been significantly worse than in patients with unilateral hippocampal damage upon MRI. The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of consecutive true MRI-negative TLE patients who all underwent standardized preoperative evaluation with intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) electrodes.
In this study we present all adult MRI-negative TLE surgery candidates evaluated between January 1990 and December 2006 at Kuopio Epilepsy Center in Kuopio University Hospital, which provides a national center for epilepsy surgery in Finland. During this period altogether 146 TLE surgery candidates were evaluated with intracranial electrodes, of whom 64 patients with normal high-resolution MRI were included in this study.
Among the 38 patients who finally underwent surgery, at the latest follow-up (mean 5.8 years), 15 (40%) were free of disabling seizures (Engel class I) and 6 (16%) were seizure-free (Engel class IA). Twenty-one (55%) of 38 patients had poor outcomes (Engel class III-IV). Outcomes did not change compared to 12-month follow-up. Histopathologic examination failed to reveal any focal pathology in 68% of our MR-negative cases. Only patients with noncongruent positron emission tomography (PET) results had worse outcomes (p = 0.044).
Our results suggest that epilepsy surgery outcomes in MRI-negative TLE patients are comparable with extratemporal epilepsy surgery in general. Seizure outcomes in the long-term also remain stable. Modern imaging techniques could further improve the postsurgical seizure-free rate. However, these patients usually require chronic intracranial EEG evaluation to define epileptogenic areas.
Detailed metabolic defects in glucose and energy metabolism and abnormalities in a variety of cardiovascular risk factors are largely unknown in subjects with the metabolic syndrome.
We characterized the metabolic syndrome in 119 nondiabetic offspring of diabetic probands. Cardiovascular risk factors, including cytokines and adhesion molecules, were measured. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp and indirect calorimetry; intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat were assessed by CT; and maximal oxygen consumption was measured with a bicycle ergometer test. By applying factor analysis, we identified a single factor, the metabolic syndrome factor, from the following variables: 2-hour glucose, fasting insulin, body mass index, waist, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and mean blood pressure. Subjects with the highest factor score were defined as having the metabolic syndrome. During hyperinsulinemia, the highest factor score was associated with decreased rates of glucose oxidation and nonoxidative glucose disposal, high rates of lipid oxidation, low energy expenditure, and impaired suppression of free fatty acids during hyperinsulinemia. Furthermore, the metabolic syndrome was associated with a high amount of visceral fat, hypoadiponectinemia, a low maximum oxygen uptake, and high levels of C-reactive protein, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules.
The metabolic syndrome is characterized by an excess of intra-abdominal fat, hypoadiponectinemia, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, multiple defects in glucose and energy metabolism, and elevated levels of cytokines and adhesion molecules.
The aim was to evaluate the metabolic profile in conjunction with vascular function using the ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI) in women with uncomplicated pregnancies and in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM).
Plasma glucose, lipids, HOMA -IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance) and AASI, as obtained from 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in third trimester pregnancy and at three months postpartum, were measured in three groups of women: controls (N=32), women with GDM on diet (N=42) and women with GDM requiring insulin treatment (N=10).
Women with GDM had poorer glycemic control and higher HOMA-IR during and after pregnancy and their total and LDL (low density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were significantly higher after pregnancy than in the controls. After delivery, there was an improvement in AASI from 0.26±0.10 to 0.17±0.09 (P=0.002) in women with GDM on diet, but not in women with GDM receiving insulin whose AASI tended to worsen after delivery from 0.30±0.23 to 0.33±0.09 (NS), then being significantly higher than in the other groups (P=0.001-0.047).
Women with GDM had more unfavorable lipid profile and higher blood glucose values at three months after delivery, the metabolic profile being worst in women requiring insulin. Interestingly, the metabolic disturbances at three months postpartum were accompanied by a tendency towards arterial stiffness to increase in women requiring insulin.
Particulate air pollution and risk of ST-segment depression during repeated submaximal exercise tests among subjects with coronary heart disease: the Exposure and Risk Assessment for Fine and Ultrafine Particles in Ambient Air (ULTRA) study.
Daily variations in ambient particulate air pollution have been associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. We therefore assessed the associations between levels of the 3 main modes of urban aerosol distribution and the occurrence of ST-segment depressions during repeated exercise tests.
Repeated biweekly submaximal exercise tests were performed during 6 months among adult subjects with stable coronary heart disease in Helsinki, Finland. Seventy-two exercise-induced ST-segment depressions >0.1 mV occurred during 342 exercise tests among 45 subjects. Simultaneously, particle mass
Comment In: Circulation. 2002 Aug 20;106(8):890-212186787
Measurement standards for pulmonary diffusing capacity were updated in 2005 by the ATS/ERS Task Force. However, in Finland reference values published in 1982 by Viljanen et al. have been used to date. The main aim of this study was to produce updated reference models for single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide for Finnish adults. Single-breath diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide was measured in 631 healthy non-smoking volunteers (41.5% male). Reference values for diffusing capacity (DLCO), alveolar volume (VA), diffusing capacity per unit of lung volume (DLCO/VA), and lung volumes were calculated using a linear regression model. Previously used Finnish reference values were found to produce too low predicted values, with mean predicted DLCO 111.0 and 104.4%, and DLCO/VA of 103.5 and 102.7% in males and females, respectively. With the European Coalition for Steel and Coal (ECSC) reference values there was a significant sex difference in DLCO/VA with mean predicted 105.4% in males and 92.8% in females (p?
Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults. Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83?years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen et al. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik et al. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik et al. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen et al. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.
Safety and feasibility of catheter-based local intracoronary vascular endothelial growth factor gene transfer in the prevention of postangioplasty and in-stent restenosis and in the treatment of chronic myocardial ischemia: phase II results of the Kuopio Angiogenesis Trial (KAT).
Catheter-based intracoronary vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene transfer is a potential treatment for coronary heart disease. However, only limited data are available about local VEGF gene transfer given during angioplasty (PTCA) and stenting.
Patients with coronary heart disease (n=103; Canadian Cardiovascular Society class II to III; mean age, 58+/-6 years) were recruited in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase II study. PTCA was performed with standard methods, followed by gene transfer with a perfusion-infusion catheter. Ninety percent of the patients were given stents; 37 patients received VEGF adenovirus (VEGF-Adv, 2x10(10) pfu), 28 patients received VEGF plasmid liposome (VEGF-P/L; 2000 microg of DNA with 2000 microL of DOTMA:DOPE [1:1 wt/wt]), and 38 control patients received Ringer's lactate. Follow-up time was 6 months. Gene transfer to coronary arteries was feasible and well tolerated. The overall clinical restenosis rate was 6%. In quantitative coronary angiography analysis, the minimal lumen diameter and percent of diameter stenosis did not significantly differ between the study groups. However, myocardial perfusion showed a significant improvement in the VEGF-Adv-treated patients after the 6-month follow-up. Some inflammatory responses were transiently present in the VEGF-Adv group, but no increases were detected in the incidences of serious adverse events in any of the study groups.
Gene transfer with VEGF-Adv or VEGF-P/L during PTCA and stenting shows that (1) intracoronary gene transfer can be performed safely (no major gene transfer-related adverse effects were detected), (2) no differences in clinical restenosis rate or minimal lumen diameter were present after the 6-month follow-up, and (3) a significant increase was detected in myocardial perfusion in the VEGF-Adv-treated patients.
Comment In: Circulation. 2003 Jun 3;107(21):2635-712782613