CONTEXT: A number of studies suggest a positive association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in early and middle childhood. However, the only previous study that investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and intelligence in adults had several methodological shortcomings. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between duration of infant breastfeeding and intelligence in young adulthood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal birth cohort study conducted in a sample of 973 men and women and a sample of 2280 men, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The samples were divided into 5 categories based on duration of breastfeeding, as assessed by physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intelligence, assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) at a mean age of 27.2 years in the mixed-sex sample and the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP) test at a mean age of 18.7 years in the all-male sample. Thirteen potential confounders were included as covariates: parental social status and education; single mother status; mother's height, age, and weight gain during pregnancy and cigarette consumption during the third trimester; number of pregnancies; estimated gestational age; birth weight; birth length; and indexes of pregnancy and delivery complications. RESULTS: Duration of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher scores on the Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale WAIS IQs. With regression adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean Full Scale WAIS IQs were 99.4, 101.7, 102.3, 106.0, and 104.0 for breastfeeding durations of less than 1 month, 2 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 9 months, and more than 9 months, respectively (P =.003 for overall F test). The corresponding mean scores on the BPP were 38.0, 39.2, 39.9, 40.1, and 40.1 (P =.01 for overall F test). CONCLUSION: Independent of a wide range of possible confounding factors, a significant positive association between duration of breastfeeding and intelligence was observed in 2 independent samples of young adults, assessed with 2 different intelligence tests.
Comment In: JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):828-9; author reply 829-3012186590
Comment In: JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):829; author reply 829-3012186591
A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development, however, did not exhibit more behavioral problems or poorer social skills than the control children did.
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with trauma focus is the most evidence supported psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, but few CBT treatments for traumatized refugees have been described in detail.
To describe and evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy for traumatized refugees incorporating exposure therapy, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy.
85 patients received six months' treatment at a Copenhagen Trauma Clinic for Refugees and completed self-ratings before and after treatment. The treatment administered to each patient was monitored in detail. The changes in mental state and the treatment components associated with change in state were analyzed statistically.
Despite the low level of functioning and high co-morbidity of patients, 42% received highly structured CBT, which was positively associated with all treatment outcomes. The more methods used and the more time each method was used, the better the outcome. The majority of patients were able to make homework assignments and this was associated with better treatment outcome. Correlation analysis showed no association between severity of symptoms at baseline and the observed change.
The study suggests that CBT treatment incorporating mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy is promising for traumatized refugees and punctures the myth that this group of patients are unable to participate fully in structured CBT. However, treatment methods must be adapted to the special needs of refugees and trauma exposure should be further investigated.
BACKGROUND: To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors. PROCEDURE: We studied a consecutive sample of 133 patients (76 had received radiotherapy (RT)) who had a brain tumor diagnosed before the age of 15 years and were treated during the period January 1970 through February 1997 in the Eastern part of Denmark. Biologic effective dose of irradiation (BED) was assessed in 71 patients. One hundred twenty-seven patients were able to cooperate to WISC-R and WAIS-R. Multiple regression models were constructed to evaluate relationships between possible risk factors and cognitive outcome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The mean intelligence (IQ) scores were substantially lower than the expected means of the general population. Younger age at diagnosis, tumor site in cerebral hemisphere, hydrocephalus treated with shunt, and treatment with RT were found to be significant predictors of lower cognitive functions. RT was the most important risk factor for impaired intellectual outcome. The mean observed full scale IQ was 97.1 (SD = 14.3) for the non-irradiated patients and 78.8 (SD = 14.3) for the irradiated patients (adjusted P
The Danish Conscription Database (DCD) was established to enable studies of the influence of early physical and mental exposures on adverse health and social outcomes from a life-course perspective. In Denmark, all young men are requested to appear before the conscription board when they turn 18 years, to be assessed for military service. The DCD was established by digitizing information from conscription board register cards on the height, weight, educational level, intelligence test score and examination details of Danish conscripts. The DCD contains information on 728,160 men born from 1939 through 1959 and examined by the conscription board from 1957 through 1984. The unique Danish personal identification number of each individual conscript has been traced, and this allows linkage of the DCD to all Danish health and socioeconomic registers. More than 130,000 deaths have been identified in a recent linkage to the Danish Register of Cause of Death. We encourage collaboration, and interested researchers should contact: email@example.com.
The objective of the study was to examine the role of leisure time physical activity on the risk of developing depression in a large longitudinal setting.
A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of leisure time physical activity and covariates and 26 years of follow-up data on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to two Danish hospital registers for information on depression. Data were collected in three rounds, namely, 1976-1978, 1981-1983, and 1991-1994, and analyses were conducted in 2010.
Compared to women with a high physical activity level, women with a moderate level had a hazard ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.44) for developing depression while women with a low level had a hazard ratio of 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.51). Compared to men with a high physical activity level, men with a moderate level had a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.68) for developing depression, while men with a low level had a hazard ratio of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-2.34).
Among women, a low level of physical activity was significantly associated with a greater risk of depression.
Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population. The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group.
Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index and the symptom scales of the Symptoms Check List-90 while controlling for baseline demographic differences between the groups.
Group mean scores showed that all symptom scales and the Global Severity Index for both sexes were statistically elevated in the low back pain group, except for interpersonal sensitivity in women. When the scores were dichotomized to cases and non-cases of mental distress, a significantly higher prevalence of cases was observed in the low back pain group compared to the reference group on all symptom check list scales, except for paranoid ideation for both sexes and interpersonal sensitivity for women. The biggest between-group difference was observed for the somatization symptom scale.
Low back pain patients who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed, are more mentally distressed compared to a randomly selected sample of the general Danish population. Self-reported symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, depression and hostility are all more common among patients with low back pain compared to the general population.
Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa?=?0.21-0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes, in which case they should be treated as separate outcomes in future aetiological studies.
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Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted in connection with and sampled from a large quantitative study and the results of both studies are discussed. In the analyses, we explored the ASE constructs according to how they are described in the ASE theory. Furthermore, we examined contradictions and aspects which are not explained in the model and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore, the social-cognitive models are based on the assumption that adolescents talk about smoking norms and have a high degree of individual reflexivity, which is not always characteristic of adolescent behavior. Conclusion. Applying theoretical models in health research should be a continuous process of both applying the model and discussing the theoretical assumptions of the model when applied to a specific sample. The results of the qualitative study provide some support for use of the ASE model, but the results also suggest that further studies are needed to explore how social-cognitive models can be expanded to be more comprehensive behavioral models.