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The association between duration of breastfeeding and adult intelligence.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature58524
Source
JAMA. 2002 May 8;287(18):2365-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-8-2002
Author
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Kim Fleischer Michaelsen
Stephanie A Sanders
June Machover Reinisch
Author Affiliation
Institute of Preventive Medicine, Kommunehospitalet, DK-1399 Copenhagen K, Denmark. e.l.mortensen@pubhealth.ku.dk
Source
JAMA. 2002 May 8;287(18):2365-71
Date
May-8-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Breast Feeding
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant
Intelligence
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Socioeconomic Factors
Time Factors
Wechsler Scales
Abstract
CONTEXT: A number of studies suggest a positive association between breastfeeding and cognitive development in early and middle childhood. However, the only previous study that investigated the relationship between breastfeeding and intelligence in adults had several methodological shortcomings. OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between duration of infant breastfeeding and intelligence in young adulthood. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Prospective longitudinal birth cohort study conducted in a sample of 973 men and women and a sample of 2280 men, all of whom were born in Copenhagen, Denmark, between October 1959 and December 1961. The samples were divided into 5 categories based on duration of breastfeeding, as assessed by physician interview with mothers at a 1-year examination. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intelligence, assessed using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) at a mean age of 27.2 years in the mixed-sex sample and the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP) test at a mean age of 18.7 years in the all-male sample. Thirteen potential confounders were included as covariates: parental social status and education; single mother status; mother's height, age, and weight gain during pregnancy and cigarette consumption during the third trimester; number of pregnancies; estimated gestational age; birth weight; birth length; and indexes of pregnancy and delivery complications. RESULTS: Duration of breastfeeding was associated with significantly higher scores on the Verbal, Performance, and Full Scale WAIS IQs. With regression adjustment for potential confounding factors, the mean Full Scale WAIS IQs were 99.4, 101.7, 102.3, 106.0, and 104.0 for breastfeeding durations of less than 1 month, 2 to 3 months, 4 to 6 months, 7 to 9 months, and more than 9 months, respectively (P =.003 for overall F test). The corresponding mean scores on the BPP were 38.0, 39.2, 39.9, 40.1, and 40.1 (P =.01 for overall F test). CONCLUSION: Independent of a wide range of possible confounding factors, a significant positive association between duration of breastfeeding and intelligence was observed in 2 independent samples of young adults, assessed with 2 different intelligence tests.
Notes
Comment In: JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):828-9; author reply 829-3012186590
Comment In: JAMA. 2002 Aug 21;288(7):829; author reply 829-3012186591
Erratum In: JAMA 2002 Jun 12;287(22):2946
PubMed ID
11988057 View in PubMed
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Behavioral and social development of children born extremely premature: 5-year follow-up.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature30211
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2004 Sep;45(4):285-92
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2004
Author
Barbara Hoff
Bo Mølholm Hansen
Hanne Munck
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Author Affiliation
Department of Neonatology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark. barbara_hoff@mail.dk
Source
Scand J Psychol. 2004 Sep;45(4):285-92
Date
Sep-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Attention Deficit and Disruptive Behavior Disorders - epidemiology
Case-Control Studies
Child Development
Child, Preschool
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Infant, Premature
Infant, Very Low Birth Weight
Intelligence
Male
Parenting
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Risk
Social Adjustment
Abstract
A cohort of extremely prematurely born children and matched term controls was assessed at 5 years of age. The parents completed a questionnaire on their behavioral and social development. The purpose was to illuminate whether the children's general intellectual ability and parental sensitivity were associated with behavioral and social development. The index children exhibited more hyperactive behavior and had poorer social skills than the controls. Lower Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) was associated with outward reacting and hyperactive behavior and poorer social skills. Sensitive parenting was associated with less outward reacting and less hyperactive behavior. When controlling for differences in FSIQ and parental sensitivity, the index children persisted to have an increased risk of exhibiting hyperactive behavior but not poorer social skills. The index children with normal intellectual development, however, did not exhibit more behavioral problems or poorer social skills than the control children did.
PubMed ID
15281917 View in PubMed
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Cognitive behavioral psychotherapeutic treatment at a psychiatric trauma clinic for refugees: description and evaluation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270471
Source
Torture. 2015;25(1):17-32
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
Cæcilie Buhmann
Ida Andersen
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Jasmina Ryberg
Merete Nordentoft
Morten Ekstrøm
Source
Torture. 2015;25(1):17-32
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cognition
Cognitive Therapy - methods
Denmark - epidemiology
Ethnic Groups
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Refugees - psychology
Retrospective Studies
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic - ethnology - psychology - therapy
Treatment Outcome
Young Adult
Abstract
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) with trauma focus is the most evidence supported psychotherapeutic treatment of PTSD, but few CBT treatments for traumatized refugees have been described in detail.
To describe and evaluate a manualized cognitive behavioral therapy for traumatized refugees incorporating exposure therapy, mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy.
85 patients received six months' treatment at a Copenhagen Trauma Clinic for Refugees and completed self-ratings before and after treatment. The treatment administered to each patient was monitored in detail. The changes in mental state and the treatment components associated with change in state were analyzed statistically.
Despite the low level of functioning and high co-morbidity of patients, 42% received highly structured CBT, which was positively associated with all treatment outcomes. The more methods used and the more time each method was used, the better the outcome. The majority of patients were able to make homework assignments and this was associated with better treatment outcome. Correlation analysis showed no association between severity of symptoms at baseline and the observed change.
The study suggests that CBT treatment incorporating mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy is promising for traumatized refugees and punctures the myth that this group of patients are unable to participate fully in structured CBT. However, treatment methods must be adapted to the special needs of refugees and trauma exposure should be further investigated.
PubMed ID
26021345 View in PubMed
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Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18802
Source
Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003 Jan;40(1):26-34
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2003
Author
Tonny Solveig Reimers
Susanne Ehrenfels
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Marianne Schmiegelow
Signe Sønderkaer
Henrik Carstensen
Kjeld Schmiegelow
Jørn Müller
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, Play Therapy, and Social Work, The Juliane Marie Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. tsr@rh.dk
Source
Med Pediatr Oncol. 2003 Jan;40(1):26-34
Date
Jan-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Brain - radiation effects
Brain Neoplasms - psychology - radiotherapy
Child
Child, Preschool
Cognition - radiation effects
Cognition Disorders - etiology
Combined Modality Therapy
Denmark
Female
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Radiotherapy Dosage
Regression Analysis
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Retrospective Studies
Survival Analysis
Wechsler Scales
Abstract
BACKGROUND: To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors. PROCEDURE: We studied a consecutive sample of 133 patients (76 had received radiotherapy (RT)) who had a brain tumor diagnosed before the age of 15 years and were treated during the period January 1970 through February 1997 in the Eastern part of Denmark. Biologic effective dose of irradiation (BED) was assessed in 71 patients. One hundred twenty-seven patients were able to cooperate to WISC-R and WAIS-R. Multiple regression models were constructed to evaluate relationships between possible risk factors and cognitive outcome. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The mean intelligence (IQ) scores were substantially lower than the expected means of the general population. Younger age at diagnosis, tumor site in cerebral hemisphere, hydrocephalus treated with shunt, and treatment with RT were found to be significant predictors of lower cognitive functions. RT was the most important risk factor for impaired intellectual outcome. The mean observed full scale IQ was 97.1 (SD = 14.3) for the non-irradiated patients and 78.8 (SD = 14.3) for the irradiated patients (adjusted P
PubMed ID
12426683 View in PubMed
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Cohort Profile: The Danish Conscription Database(DCD): A cohort of 728,160 men born from 1939 through 1959.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271049
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Apr;44(2):432-40
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Gunhild Tidemann Christensen
Drude Molbo
Lars Henrik Ängquist
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Kaare Christensen
Thorkild Ingvor Arrild Sørensen
Merete Osler
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Apr;44(2):432-40
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Age Distribution
Aged
Body Height - physiology
Body Weight - physiology
Cause of Death
Cohort Studies
Data Collection - methods
Denmark - epidemiology
Educational Status
Humans
Information Storage and Retrieval
Intelligence - physiology
Male
Middle Aged
Military Personnel - statistics & numerical data
Registries
Abstract
The Danish Conscription Database (DCD) was established to enable studies of the influence of early physical and mental exposures on adverse health and social outcomes from a life-course perspective. In Denmark, all young men are requested to appear before the conscription board when they turn 18 years, to be assessed for military service. The DCD was established by digitizing information from conscription board register cards on the height, weight, educational level, intelligence test score and examination details of Danish conscripts. The DCD contains information on 728,160 men born from 1939 through 1959 and examined by the conscription board from 1957 through 1984. The unique Danish personal identification number of each individual conscript has been traced, and this allows linkage of the DCD to all Danish health and socioeconomic registers. More than 130,000 deaths have been identified in a recent linkage to the Danish Register of Cause of Death. We encourage collaboration, and interested researchers should contact: danishconscriptiondatabase.glostrup-hospital@regionh.dk.
PubMed ID
24906367 View in PubMed
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A cohort study of leisure time physical activity and depression.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature140613
Source
Prev Med. 2010 Dec;51(6):471-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2010
Author
Stine Schou Mikkelsen
Janne Schumann Tolstrup
Esben Meulengracht Flachs
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Peter Schnohr
Trine Flensborg-Madsen
Author Affiliation
Research programme for Lifestyle and Health, National Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark, Øster Farimagsgade 5A, 2nd floor, 1353 Copenhagen, Denmark. smik@niph.dk
Source
Prev Med. 2010 Dec;51(6):471-5
Date
Dec-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Denmark - epidemiology
Depressive Disorder - epidemiology - prevention & control
Female
Humans
Leisure Activities
Male
Motor Activity
Proportional Hazards Models
Risk factors
Abstract
The objective of the study was to examine the role of leisure time physical activity on the risk of developing depression in a large longitudinal setting.
A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of leisure time physical activity and covariates and 26 years of follow-up data on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to two Danish hospital registers for information on depression. Data were collected in three rounds, namely, 1976-1978, 1981-1983, and 1991-1994, and analyses were conducted in 2010.
Compared to women with a high physical activity level, women with a moderate level had a hazard ratio of 1.07 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.44) for developing depression while women with a low level had a hazard ratio of 1.80 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.51). Compared to men with a high physical activity level, men with a moderate level had a hazard ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.68) for developing depression, while men with a low level had a hazard ratio of 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 0.83-2.34).
Among women, a low level of physical activity was significantly associated with a greater risk of depression.
PubMed ID
20858516 View in PubMed
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Comparison of mental distress in patients with low back pain and a population-based control group measured by Symptoms Check List--A case-referent study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature270222
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2015 Aug;43(6):638-47
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2015
Author
Jan Christensen
Annette Fisker
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Lis Raabæk Olsen
Ole Steen Mortensen
Jan Hartvigsen
Henning Langberg
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2015 Aug;43(6):638-47
Date
Aug-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Case-Control Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Low Back Pain - psychology
Male
Mental Disorders - diagnosis - epidemiology
Middle Aged
Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
Sick Leave - statistics & numerical data
Stress, Psychological - diagnosis - epidemiology
Young Adult
Abstract
Mental distress is common in persons experiencing low back pain and who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed. It is, however, not known how mental distress measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 differs between patients with low back pain and the general population. The objective of this study was to compare mental symptoms and distress as measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 in sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed patients with low back pain with a population-based control group.
Mental distress was compared in a group of patients with low back pain (n=770) and a randomly selected population-based reference group (n=909). Established Danish cut-off values for mental distress were used to evaluate the mental distress status in the low back pain and control group and logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for the Global Severity Index and the symptom scales of the Symptoms Check List-90 while controlling for baseline demographic differences between the groups.
Group mean scores showed that all symptom scales and the Global Severity Index for both sexes were statistically elevated in the low back pain group, except for interpersonal sensitivity in women. When the scores were dichotomized to cases and non-cases of mental distress, a significantly higher prevalence of cases was observed in the low back pain group compared to the reference group on all symptom check list scales, except for paranoid ideation for both sexes and interpersonal sensitivity for women. The biggest between-group difference was observed for the somatization symptom scale.
Low back pain patients who are sick-listed or at risk of being sick-listed, are more mentally distressed compared to a randomly selected sample of the general Danish population. Self-reported symptoms of somatization, anxiety, phobic anxiety, obsessive-compulsive, depression and hostility are all more common among patients with low back pain compared to the general population.
PubMed ID
25964126 View in PubMed
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A comparison of three methods to measure asthma in epidemiologic studies: results from the Danish National Birth Cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124277
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36328
Publication Type
Article
Date
2012
Author
Susanne Hansen
Marin Strøm
Ekaterina Maslova
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Charlotta Granström
Sjurdur F Olsen
Author Affiliation
Centre for Fetal Programming, Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, Denmark. suu@ssi.dk
Source
PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e36328
Date
2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Asthma - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Cohort Studies
Denmark - epidemiology
Epidemiologic Methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Hospitalization - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Infant, Newborn
Male
Pregnancy
Prescriptions - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Questionnaires
Registries
Abstract
Asthma is a heterogeneous outcome and how the condition should be measured to best capture clinically relevant disease in epidemiologic studies remains unclear. We compared three methods of measuring asthma in the Danish National Birth Cohort (n>50.000). When the children were 7 years old, the prevalence of asthma was estimated from a self-administered questionnaire using parental report of doctor diagnoses, ICD-10 diagnoses from a population-based hospitalization registry, and data on anti-asthmatic medication from a population-based prescription registry. We assessed the agreement between the methods using kappa statistics. Highest prevalence of asthma was found using the prescription registry (32.2%) followed by the self-report (12.0%) and the hospitalization registry (6.6%). We found a substantial non-overlap between the methods (kappa?=?0.21-0.38). When all three methods were combined the asthma prevalence was 3.6%. In conclusion, self-reported asthma, ICD-10 diagnoses from a hospitalization registry and data on anti-asthmatic medication use from a prescription registry lead to different prevalences of asthma in the same cohort of children. The non-overlap between the methods may be due to different abilities of the methods to identify cases with different phenotypes, in which case they should be treated as separate outcomes in future aetiological studies.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22606255 View in PubMed
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Critical discussion of social-cognitive factors in smoking initiation among adolescents.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature138463
Source
Acta Oncol. 2011 Jan;50(1):88-98
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2011
Author
Pernille Envold Bidstrup
Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen
Erik Lykke Mortensen
Mathilde Vinther-Larsen
Christoffer Johansen
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychosocial Cancer Research, Institute of Cancer Epidemiology, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark. pernille@cancer.dk
Source
Acta Oncol. 2011 Jan;50(1):88-98
Date
Jan-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior - psychology
Attitude to Health
Cognition
Denmark - epidemiology
Female
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Male
Parents
Peer Group
Qualitative Research
Questionnaires
Schools
Self Concept
Smoking - epidemiology - psychology
Social Behavior
Abstract
Social-cognitive models have often been used in research on prevention in adolescent populations, even though the models were designed to describe adult behavior. The aim of the study reported here was to examine critically and constructively the five social-cognitive factors in the 'attitude, social influence, self-efficacy' (ASE) model. Methods. The examination draws on the results of a qualitative follow-up study of smoking initiation based on semi-structured interviews and observations of 12 adolescents in two Danish school classes, grades 7 and 8. The qualitative study was conducted in connection with and sampled from a large quantitative study and the results of both studies are discussed. In the analyses, we explored the ASE constructs according to how they are described in the ASE theory. Furthermore, we examined contradictions and aspects which are not explained in the model and if relevant discussed these aspects using other theoretical frameworks. Results. The results showed that aspects other than those in the ASE model are also important. Smoking initiation was often situational and unplanned and was sometimes used in negotiating social relationships and identity. Furthermore, the social-cognitive models are based on the assumption that adolescents talk about smoking norms and have a high degree of individual reflexivity, which is not always characteristic of adolescent behavior. Conclusion. Applying theoretical models in health research should be a continuous process of both applying the model and discussing the theoretical assumptions of the model when applied to a specific sample. The results of the qualitative study provide some support for use of the ASE model, but the results also suggest that further studies are needed to explore how social-cognitive models can be expanded to be more comprehensive behavioral models.
PubMed ID
21174611 View in PubMed
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