To examine how clusters of energy balance-related behaviours (EBRBs), including sleep related factors, were associated with overweight among adolescents.
In Finland, 4262 adolescents, aged 13-15, participated in the cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. The adolescents completed questionnaires assessing EBRBs [sleep duration, discrepancy and quality, physical activity (PA), screen time, junk food, fruit, and vegetable intake] and height and weight. Clusters were identified with ?-means cluster analysis and their associations with overweight with logistic regression analyses.
Common clusters for boys and girls were labelled "Healthy lifestyle" and "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle". In addition, the cluster "Low/moderate screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" was identified among boys, and the cluster "Poor sleep, unhealthy lifestyle" among girls. Only girls in the cluster "High screen time, unhealthy lifestyle" were at increased risk for overweight.
Girls, whose EBRB was characterized by high screen time and low PA, but not with poor sleep, were at increased risk for overweight. Future studies should examine ways to promote PA among adolescent girls with high interest in screen-based activities.
We examined whether there are sex differences in children's fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and in descriptive norms (i.e. perceived FV intake) related to parents and friends. We also studied whether friends' impact is as important as that of parents on children's FV intake. Data from the PRO GREENS project in Finland were obtained from 424 children at the age 11 years at baseline. At baseline, 2009 children filled in a questionnaire about descriptive norms conceptualised as perceived FV intake of their parents and friends. They also filled in a validated FFQ that assessed their FV intake both at baseline and in the follow-up in 2010. The associations were examined with multi-level regression analyses with multi-group comparisons. Girls reported higher perceived FV intake of friends and higher own fruit intake at baseline, compared with boys, and higher vegetable intake both at baseline and in the follow-up. Perceived FV intake of parents and friends was positively associated with both girls' and boys' FV intake in both study years. The impact of perceived fruit intake of the mother was stronger among boys. The change in children's FV intake was affected only by perceived FV intake of father and friends. No large sex differences in descriptive norms were found, but the impact of friends on children's FV intake can generally be considered as important as that of parents. Future interventions could benefit from taking into account friends' impact as role models on children's FV intake.
This paper describes the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) survey process and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in children's energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), meaning physical activity, sedentary and dietary behaviors, and long-term stress that serve as the basis for the intervention development. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2015?2016 in 66 Finnish preschools in eight municipalities involving 864 children (3?6 years old). Parents, preschool personnel, and principals assessed environmental factors at home and preschool with questionnaires. Measurement of children's EBRBs involved three-day food records, food frequency questionnaires (FFQ), seven-day accelerometer data, and seven-day sedentary behavior diaries. Children's long-term stress was measured by hair cortisol concentration. Parental educational level (PEL) served as an indicator of SES. Children with low PEL had more screen time, more frequent consumption of sugary beverages and lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, and berries (VFB) than those with high PEL. Children with middle PEL had a higher risk of consuming sugary everyday foods than children with high PEL. No PEL differences were found in children's physical activity, sedentary time, or long-term stress. The DAGIS intervention, aiming to diminish SES differences in preschool children's EBRBs, needs to have a special focus on screen time and consumption of sugary foods and beverages, and VFB.
Little is known about the mediating effects of the determinants of fruit and vegetable (FV) intake in school-based interventions that promote FV intake, and few studies have examined the impact of the degree of implementation on the effects of an intervention. The present study examined whether the degree of implementation of an intervention had an effect on children's fruit or vegetable intake and determined possible mediators of this effect. The study is part of the European PRO GREENS intervention study which aimed to develop effective strategies to promote consumption of fruit and vegetables in schoolchildren across Europe. Data from 727 Finnish children aged 11 years were used. The baseline study was conducted in spring 2009 and the follow-up study 12 months later. The intervention was conducted during the school year 2009-2010. The effects were examined using multilevel mediation analyses. A high degree of implementation of the intervention had an effect on children's fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and liking mediated the association between a high degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Knowledge of recommendations for FV intake and bringing fruits to school as a snack mediated the association between a low degree of implementation of the intervention and an increase in the frequency of fruit intake. Overall, the model accounted for 34 % of the variance in the change in fruit intake frequency. Knowledge of recommendations acted as a mediator between the degree of implementation of the intervention and the change in vegetable intake frequency. In conclusion, the degree of implementation had an effect on fruit intake, and thus in future intervention studies the actual degree of implementation of interventions should be assessed when considering the effects of interventions.
Socioeconomic health inequalities are partly attributed to different physical activity (PA) patterns. Psychosocial factors interacting with PA are suggested to explain the socioeconomic differences in PA to some extent. The aim of the present study was to examine whether PA self-efficacy, PA social support, and general self-control contribute to the socioeconomic status (SES) differences in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and in total PA.
The sample consisted of 25-74-year-old Finnish men (n = 2325) and women (n = 2699), who participated in the cross-sectional FINRISK Study in 2007. Physical activity was measured as total PA (MET-h/week) and as LTPA (inactive/active). A psychosocial factor questionnaire included scales measuring PA self-efficacy, PA social support, and general self-control. SES was defined by household gross income and years of education.
Both higher education and income were associated with higher levels of LTPA, whereas total PA was higher among those with lower SES. Subjects with high SES reported higher levels of PA self-efficacy and PA social support, but general self-control correlated only with higher income. PA self-efficacy, PA social support and general self-control had positive associations with both LTPA and total PA. These psychosocial factors partly explained the SES differences in LTPA, but not in total PA.
Future intervention studies should examine whether, by influencing PA self-efficacy, PA social support, and general self-control, it is possible to diminish the SES differences in PA.
There is increasing interest in whether positive and negative psychological constructs are bipolar opposites of the same phenomenon. We examine whether a positive construct--sense of coherence (SOC)--has independent predictive power over and above depressive symptoms for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality.
Participants included 3850 men and 4083 women aged 25 to 74 years who had participated in risk factor surveys conducted in 1992 or 1997. Antonovsky's 13-item SOC scale was used to measure SOC, and had a correlation of -0.60 with the Beck Depression Inventory.
During a mean follow-up time of 14.2 years, there were 670 deaths and 487 nonfatal and fatal CVD events. Higher SOC scores were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.97 per unit), especially among men, but this association became nonsignificant after adjustment for depressive symptoms (RR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.90-1.08). Among participants without a history of CVD, higher SOC scores were related to a lower risk for CVD (RR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.83-0.98), but this association disappeared after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Depressive symptoms remained significant predictors of CVD among women in a model including also SOC (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.06-1.46).
SOC was related to all-cause mortality among men; the association with CVD events was modest. Measures for SOC and depressive symptoms were significantly correlated, which might result in overlap in their associations with adverse disease and mortality outcomes.