Previously published studies on the risk of cancer among male priests have been based on cancer mortality with the exception of one case-control study. The aim of this study was to present estimates of cancer incidence among Nordic male priests. The study cohort for our analyses consisted of 6.5 million men aged 30-64 years old who had participated in any computerised population census in four Nordic countries in 1990 or earlier. Follow-up was done by drawing linkages with the national population and cancer registries. 13,491 priests were identified by their job title codes. We estimated the standardised incidence ratio (SIR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the priests using the male population as a reference. Priests had a lower cancer incidence than the general population (overall SIR 0.85, 95% CI: 0.82-0.88). The majority of smoking- and alcohol-related cancers were associated with decreased SIR estimates. Increased risks were observed for skin melanoma (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11-1.62), acute myeloid leukemia (SIR 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.47) and thyroid cancer (SIR 1.86, 95% CI: 1.22-2.73). This is the first cohort study regarding the incidence of cancer among priests. The lower incidence of smoking and alcohol-related cancers among Nordic male priests can be explained by their lower exposure to cigarettes and alcohol when compared to the general population. A greater risk of melanoma is typical of highly-educated people, but it is unclear why priests should have an increased risk of acute myeloid leukemia or thyroid cancer.
The association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still not established. In 2002, Norwegian women had the second highest incidence of CRC in the world. A large proportion of Norwegian women are ever smokers. We examined the association between cigarette smoking and CRC incidence among Norwegian women.
We followed 68,160 women, aged 30-69 years, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study who completed a questionnaire in 1996 or 1998 by linkages to national registers through 31 December 2005. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequently, we estimated the population attributable fraction.
Altogether, 425 incident cases of primary, invasive CRC were identified. Ever smokers had a 20% increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.5), a 30% increased risk of colon (RR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.7), and a 10% increased risk of rectal (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.5) cancer compared to never smokers. The population attributable fraction was estimated to be 12% which indicated that approximately one in eight of the CRC cases could have been prevented at a population level.
Our results support the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is a preventable cause of CRC among women.
Cites: Int J Cancer. 2001 Feb 15;91(4):585-711251986
The consumption of fatty fish, which contains large amounts of omega-3 fatty acids, may lower the risk of hormone-responsive cancers. Our aim was to study the association of fish consumption and endometrial cancer risk in Sweden, a country with a wide range of high fatty fish consumption. Using data from a large, nationwide case-control study (709 cases and 2888 controls), we analyzed consumption of both fatty (e.g., salmon and herring) and lean (e.g., cod and flounder) fish in relation to endometrial cancer risk, adjusting estimates for a wide range of potentially confounding variables. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed from unconditional logistic regression models fit by maximum likelihood methods. Consumption of fatty fish was inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk. The multivariate OR for women in the highest quartile level (median, 2.0 servings per week), compared to women with in the lowest (median, 0.2 servings per week), was 0.6 (95% CI, 0.5-0.8; P for trend, 0.0002). The corresponding OR for women in the highest quartile level of lean fish (median, 2.5 servings per week), compared to women in the lowest (median, 0.6 servings per week), was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.8-1.3; P-value for trend, 0.72). Total fish consumption was inversely associated with risk, although weakly. Our results suggest that the consumption of fatty fish, but not other types of fish, may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer.
Recent studies have found that the risk of death continues to increase among female smokers, as compared with women who have never smoked. We wanted to examine the effect of smoking on all-cause and cause-specific mortality and calculate the corresponding population attributable fraction (PAF) of mortality in the Norwegian women and cancer study; a nationally representative prospective cohort study. We followed 85,320 women, aged 31–70 years, who completed a questionnaire in 1991–1997, through linkages to national registries through December 2008. Questionnaire data included information on lifestyle factors, including lifetime history of smoking. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate relative risks (RRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) adjusting for age, birth cohort, education, postmenopausal status, alcohol consumption and body mass index, all at enrollment. During a mean follow-up time of 14 years 2,842 deaths occurred. Compared with that of never smokers, current smokers had a mortality rate that was double (RR = 2.34; 95 % CI 2.13–2.62) from deaths overall, triple (RR = 3.30; 95 % CI 2.21–4.82) from cerebrovascular disease and myocardial infarction (RR = 3.65; 95 % CI 2.18–6.15), 12 times (RR = 12.16; 95 % CI 7.80–19.00) from lung cancer and seventeen times (RR = 17.00; 95 % CI 5.90–48.78) from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. The PAF of mortality due to smoking was 34 % (CI 30–39). In summary, one in three deaths among middle aged women in Norway could have been prevented if the women did not smoke. More middle-aged women, than ever before, are dying prematurely due to smoking in Norway.
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BACKGROUND: Although sun exposure is an established cause of cutaneous malignant melanoma, possible interactions with host factors remain incompletely understood. Here we report the first results from a large prospective cohort study of pigmentation factors and sun exposure in relation to melanoma risk. METHODS: The Women's Lifestyle and Health Cohort Study included 106 379 women from Norway and Sweden who were aged 30-50 years in 1991 or 1992 when they completed an extensive questionnaire on personal characteristics and exposures. Linkages to national registries ensured complete follow-up through December 31, 1999. Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs). All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During an average follow-up of 8.1 years, 187 cases of melanoma were diagnosed. Risk of melanoma was statistically significantly associated with increasing body surface area (RR for > or =1.79 m2 versus or =7 nevi versus 0 nevi = 5.29, 95% CI = 2.33 to 12.01; P(trend)
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Feb 18;96(4):335-6; author reply 336-814970286
Comment In: J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Feb 18;96(4):335; author reply 337-814970285