The link between physical activity (PA) and prevention of disease, maintenance of independence, and improved quality of life in older adults is supported by strong evidence. However, there is a lack of data on population levels in this regard, where PA level has been measured objectively. The main aims were therefore to assess the level of accelerometer-determined PA and to examine its associations with self-reported health in a population of Norwegian older adults (65-85 years).
This was a part of a national multicenter study. Participants for the initial study were randomly selected from the national population registry, and the current study included those of the initial sample aged 65-85 years. The ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer was used to measure PA for seven consecutive days. A questionnaire was used to register self-reported health. Univariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni adjustments were used for comparisons between multiple groups.
A total of 560 participants had valid activity registrations. Mean age (SD) was 71.8 (5.6) years for women (n=282) and 71.7 (5.2) years for men (n=278). Overall PA level (cpm) differed considerably between the age groups where the oldest (80-85 y) displayed a 50% lower activity level compared to the youngest (65-70 y). No sex differences were observed in overall PA within each age group. Significantly more men spent time being sedentary (65-69 and 70-74 years) and achieved more minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (75-79 years) compared to women. Significantly more women (except for the oldest), spent more minutes of low-intensity PA compared to men. PA differed across levels of self-reported health and a 51% higher overall PA level was registered in those, with "very good health" compared to those with "poor/very poor health".
Norwegian older adults PA levels differed by age. Overall, the elderly spent 66% of their time being sedentary and only 3% in MVPA. Twenty one percent of the participants fulfilled the current Norwegian PA recommendations. Overall PA levels were associated with self-reported health.
There is a lack of large-scale comparable data on the population levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary activity. We conducted a cross-sectional population-based multicenter study to describe the levels of PA and sedentary activity and to determine adherence to current national PA recommendations in Norwegian adults and older people.
In 2008 and 2009, PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer in 3867 participants age 20-85 yr. A total of 3267 participants provided valid PA assessments that met all inclusion criteria.
Women and men did not differ in the overall activity levels (335 and 342 counts per minute, respectively) or in steps per day (8113 and 7951 steps per day, respectively). However, for intensity-specific PA, men accumulated significantly more minutes of sedentary activity and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) compared with women (557 vs 533 min of sedentary activity, P = 0.001 and 35 vs 33 min of MVPA, P = 0.01). Both overall activity levels and steps per day remained steady with age, until 65 yr, after which activity levels declined.
Overall, the study sample spent 62% of their time being sedentary, 25% in low-intensity PA, 9% in lifestyle activity, and 4% in MVPA. One in five people met current national PA recommendations. These results suggest that adults and older people spend the majority of their time being sedentary and that adherence to PA recommendations is low.
The purpose of this study was to describe levels of inflammation markers in Norwegian children and to examine the associations of adiposity, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness with markers of inflammation.
In 2005-2006, 1467 nine-year-olds were randomly selected from all regions in Norway. The participation rate was 89%. The inflammatory markers evaluated included C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, tumor necrosis factor-a, hepatocyte growth factor, resistin, and interleukin-6. We assessed muscular strength by measuring explosive, isometric, and endurance strength. Aerobic fitness was measured directly during a maximal cycle ergometer test. Adiposity was expressed as waist circumference (WC).
The girls had significantly higher levels of CRP, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor-a compared with the boys. We observed a graded association of CRP and leptin levels across quintiles of WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness (P = 0.001 for all participants). The regression analyses revealed that WC, aerobic fitness, and muscle fitness were independently associated with the CRP (WC ß = 0.158, P
Aerobic fitness is an apparent candidate for screening children and youth for poor cardiometabolic health and future risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Yet, age- and sex-specific cut points for children and youth determined using a maximal protocol and directly measured peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) does not exist. We used a nationally representative sample of 1462 Norwegian children and youth (788 boys and 674 girls aged 8.7-10.4 years and 14.7-16.7 years) who in 2005-2006 performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with direct measurement of VO2peak , along with measurement of several other risk factors for CVD (systolic blood pressure, waist circumference:height ratio, total:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, triglycerides, Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance). Based on the proportion of children having clustering (least favorable quartile) of 6 (1.6%), =5 (5.2%), and =4 (10.6%) CVD risk factors, we established the 2nd, 5th, and 10th percentile cut points for VO2peak (mL/kg/min) for children and youth aged 8-18 years. Classification accuracy was determined using the Kappa coefficient (k), sensitivity, and specificity. For boys, the 2nd, 5th, and 10th percentile VO2peak cut points were 33.6-36.4, 36.3-39.8, and 38.7-43.0 mL/kg/min, respectively. For girls, the corresponding cut points were 29.7-29.1, 32.4-31.4, and 34.8-33.5 mL/kg/min Together with BMI, but without more invasive measures of traditional risk factors for CVD, these cut points can be used to screen schoolchildren for poor cardiometabolic health with moderate discriminating ability (k = 0.53).
The link between aerobic fitness and physical activity in children has been studied in a number of earlier studies and the results have generally shown weak to moderate correlations. This overall finding has been widely questioned partly because of the difficulty in obtaining valid estimates of physical activity. This study investigated the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationship between aerobic fitness and physical activity in a representative sample of 9 and 15-year-old children (n = 1260 cross-sectional, n = 153 longitudinal). The specific goal was to improve past studies using an objective method of activity assessment and taking into account a number of major sources of error. Data came from the Danish part of the European youth heart study, 1997-2003. The cross-sectional results generally showed a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity with standardized regression coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.33. The longitudinal results revealed a tendency towards an interaction effect of baseline physical activity on the relationship between changes in physical activity and aerobic fitness. Moderate to moderately strong regression effect sizes were observed in the lower quadrant of baseline physical activity compared to weak effect sizes in the remaining quadrants. In conclusion, the present study confirms earlier findings of a weak to moderate association between aerobic fitness and physical activity in total population of children. However, the study also indicates that inactive children can achieve notable increase in aerobic fitness by increasing their habitual physical activity level. A potential physiological explanation for these results is highlighted.
The aims of this study were: 1) to determine bone mineral density (BMD) in different age groups, 2) to determine the prevalence of low BMD, and 3) to determine the possible association between BMD and a number of risk factors in Norwegian premenopausal women. BMD of the lumbar spine (L(2)-L(4)), total body, and the hip (total femur, femur neck, and trochanter) were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Prodigy, Lunar) in 145 randomly selected women aged 13-39 years. Information on other factors thought to influence BMD was obtained through questionnaire and a clinical interview. The group aged 25-29 years had the highest mean BMD in the total body, lumbar spine, and total femur while the group aged 13-19 years had the highest mean BMD in the femur neck and the trochanter. The mean BMD values of Norwegian premenopausal women were 3.4-5.1% higher than US/European reference data (P
The aims of the study were to identify correlates of objectively measured physical activity and to determine whether the explanatory power of the correlates differed with sex, weight status or level of education.
Physical activity was assessed objectively in 3,867 participants, aged 20-85 years, for a consecutive 7 days using the ActiGraph GT1M activity monitor. Demographic and biological variables and levels of psychological, social environmental and physical environmental correlates were self-reported.
The complete set of correlates explained 18.6 % (p
To investigate the associations between body composition, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in relation to travel mode to school in children and adolescents.
Children and adolescents from 40 elementary schools and 23 high schools representing all regions in Norway were invited to participate in the study. Anthropometry, cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness were tested at the school location. Questionnaires were used in order to register mode of transport to school, age, gender and levels of leisure time physical activity.
A total of 1694 (i.e. 60% of all invited participants) children and adolescents at a mean age of 9.6 and 15.6 respectively (SD?=?0.4 for both groups) were analyzed for associations with physical fitness variables. Males cycling to school had lower sum of skin folds than adolescents walking to school. Higher cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents and male cyclists compared to walkers and passive commuters were observed. Among children, cycling and walking to school, higher isometric muscle endurance in the back extensors compared to passive commuters was observed.
Based on this national representative cross-sectional examination of randomly selected children and adolescents there is evidence that active commuting, especially cycling, is associated with a favourable body composition and better cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness as compared to passive commuting.
Cites: Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010 Feb;20(1):e41-719422647
The pandemic of physical inactivity is recognized globally but there is a scarcity of studies employing valid and reliable assessment methods of physical activity (PA) across the lifespan. The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive description of objectively measured PA, sedentary time, and prevalence of meeting PA recommendations, in a population-based sample of Norwegian children, adolescents and adults.
Children and adolescents (6, 9 and 15-year-olds) were surveyed in 2011, and adults and older people (20-85-year-olds) were surveyed in 2014/15, including more than 8000 individuals. Anthropometric data were measured in children and adolescents and self-reported in the adult sample. PA was assessed by ActiGraph accelerometers for seven consecutive days, and PA indices include total PA (counts per minute), intensity-specific PA, and adherence to PA recommendations.
Six-year-olds are 21% and 70% more active than 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively (P
The Norwegian healthy body image programme: study protocol for a randomized controlled school-based intervention to promote positive body image and prevent disordered eating among Norwegian high school students.
Body dissatisfaction and disordered eating raise the risk for eating disorders. In the prevention of eating disorders, many programmes have proved partly successful in using cognitive techniques to combat such risk factors. However, specific strategies to actively promote a positive body image are rarely used. The present paper outlines a protocol for a programme integrating the promotion of a positive body image and the prevention of disordered eating.
Using a cluster randomized controlled mixed methods design, 30 high schools and 2481 12th grade students were allocated to the Healthy Body Image programme or to a control condition. The intervention comprised three workshops, each of 90 min with the main themes body image, media literacy, and lifestyle. The intervention was interactive in nature, and were led by trained scientists. The outcome measures include standardized instruments administered pre-post intervention, and at 3 and 12 months follow-ups, respectively. Survey data cover feasibility and implementation issues. Qualitative interviews covers experiential data about students' benefits and satisfaction with the programme.
The present study is one of the first in the body image and disordered eating literature that integrates a health promotion and a disease prevention approach, as well as integrating standardized outcome measures and experiential findings. Along with mediator and moderator analyses it is expected that the Healthy Body Image programme may prove its efficacy. If so, plans are made with respect to further dissemination as well as communicating the findings to regional and national decision makers in the education and health care services.
The study was registered and released at ClinicalTrials.gov 21th August 2016 with the Clinical Trial.gov ID: PRSNCT02901457 . In addition, the study is approved by the Regional Committee for Medical and Health Research Ethics.
Cites: Body Image. 2015 Sep;15:40-3 PMID 26047066
Cites: Body Image. 2015 Jun;14:118-29 PMID 25921657
Cites: Scand J Public Health. 2012 Dec;40(8):795-805 PMID 23221918