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Body mass index and mortality in a prospectively studied cohort of Scandinavian women: the women's lifestyle and health cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16752
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20(9):747-54
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Anette Hjartåker
Hans-Olov Adami
Eiliv Lund
Elisabete Weiderpass
Author Affiliation
Department of Biostatistics, Institute for Basic Medical Sciences, University of Oslo, PO Box 1122, N-0317 Oslo, Blindern, Norway. anette.hjartaker@medisin.uio.no
Source
Eur J Epidemiol. 2005;20(9):747-54
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Female
Humans
Middle Aged
Mortality - trends
Norway - epidemiology
Obesity - epidemiology
Postmenopause
Premenopause
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk factors
Sweden - epidemiology
Abstract
Overweight and obesity increase the risk of numerous chronic diseases, including several forms of cancer. However, the association between excess body weight and all-cause mortality among young and middle-aged women is incompletely known, and the impact of menopausal status on the association has hardly been investigated. We studied prospectively a cohort comprising a population sample of 102,446 women from Norway and Sweden aged 30-50 years when they answered an extensive questionnaire in 1991/1992. During follow-up through year 2000, 1187 women in the cohort died. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate multivariate Hazard rate ratios (HRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of death in relation to body mass index (BMI, weight (kg)/height (m(2))) at start of follow-up. Both in age-adjusted models and in models adjusting for several variables (including smoking and physical activity) mortality increased with increasing BMI among premenopausal women, whereas a U-shaped relationship was seen among the postmenopausal women. Among premenopausal women obesity (BMI 30.0) doubled the mortality (HRR = 2.2, 95% CI: 1.7-3.0) when compared to women of normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), whilst the association was modest after menopause. Although we had limited power to analyze women who were underweight (BMI
PubMed ID
16170657 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer and specific types of oral contraceptives: a large Norwegian cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature18417
Source
Int J Cancer. 2003 Jul 20;105(6):844-50
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-20-2003
Author
Vanessa Dumeaux
Elin Alsaker
Eiliv Lund
Author Affiliation
University of Tromsø, Institute of Community Medicine, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2003 Jul 20;105(6):844-50
Date
Jul-20-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal - adverse effects - classification
Estrogens - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Progestins - administration & dosage - adverse effects
Prospective Studies
Risk factors
Abstract
The aim of our study was to examine the risk of breast cancer according to specific types of estrogens and progestagens in oral contraceptives (OCs) based on the prospective Norwegian Women and Cancer study (NOWAC). Between 1991-97 women aged 30-70 years were drawn at random from the central person register and mailed an invitation and a questionnaire. Women (102,443) were enrolled with follow-up information collected throughout 1999 by linkage with national registries of cancer, mortality and emigration based on the unique national identification number. Among the 96,362 women included in the present analysis 851 invasive breast cancer were diagnosed. The adjusted risk of breast cancer increased with 25% for ever use of OCs and the risk increased with increasing duration of use (test for trend: p = 0.007). No association between time since last use and breast cancer risk was found after stratification on duration of use. Positive trend was still found for total duration of use among women who used OCs more than 5 years ago. Second generation of OCs had an increased risk with increasing duration of use. Classifying progestagens according to chemical groups, the relative risk increased significantly with increasing cumulative dose of levonorgestrel progestagen. It was difficult to conclude for the other groups due to lack of power. In a multivariate analysis the cumulative dose for all progestagen groups were non-significant, although we observed a significant increased risk with increasing milligram-months of estrogen exposure (p = 0.002). In conclusion, the increased risk of breast cancer related with OC formulations could be due mostly to estrogen component.
PubMed ID
12767072 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer mortality in Norway after the introduction of mammography screening.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124944
Source
Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 1;132(1):208-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-1-2013
Author
Anne Helene Olsen
Elsebeth Lynge
Sisse H Njor
Merethe Kumle
Marit Waaseth
Tonje Braaten
Eiliv Lund
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway.
Source
Int J Cancer. 2013 Jan 1;132(1):208-14
Date
Jan-1-2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Breast Neoplasms - diagnosis - mortality - radiography
Early Detection of Cancer - methods
Female
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Mammography - methods
Mass Screening - methods
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Abstract
An organized mammography screening program was gradually implemented in Norway during the period 1996-2004. Norwegian authorities have initiated an evaluation of the program. Our study focused on breast cancer mortality. Using Poisson regression, we compared the change in breast cancer mortality from before to during screening in four counties starting the program early controlling for change in breast cancer mortality during the same time in counties starting the program late. A follow-up model included death in all breast cancers diagnosed during the follow-up period. An evaluation model included only breast cancers diagnosed in ages where screening was offered. The study group had been invited for screening one to three times and followed for on average of 5.9 years. In the follow-up model, 314 breast cancer deaths were observed in the study group, and 523, 404 and 638, respectively, in the four control groups. The ratio between the changes in breast cancer mortality between early and late starting counties was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.12). In the evaluation model, this ratio was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.71-1.12). In Norway, where 40% of women used regular mammography prior to the program, the implementation of the organized mammography screening program was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in breast cancer mortality of around 11%.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 1;132(7):1721-222933058
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 1;132(7):1723-422933134
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 1;132(7):172722933244
Comment In: Int J Cancer. 2013 Apr 1;132(7):1725-622933188
PubMed ID
22532175 View in PubMed
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Breast cancer risk among women who start smoking as teenagers.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature9303
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):61-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Inger T Gram
Tonje Braaten
Paul D Terry
Annie J Sasco
Hans-Olov Adami
Eiliv Lund
Elisabete Weiderpass
Author Affiliation
Inger T. Gram, Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsö, N-9037 Tromsö, Norway. inger.gram@ism.uit.no
Source
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):61-6
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Breast Neoplasms - epidemiology
Cohort Studies
Comparative Study
Confounding Factors (Epidemiology)
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Norway - epidemiology
Proportional Hazards Models
Questionnaires
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Risk
Smoking - adverse effects
Sweden - epidemiology
Time Factors
Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of smoking on breast cancer risk in a large population-based cohort of women, many of whom started smoking as teenagers.METHODS: We followed 102,098 women, ages 30 to 50 years, completing a mailed questionnaire at recruitment to the Norwegian-Swedish Cohort Study in 1991/1992, through December 2000. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to estimate relative risk (RR) of breast cancer associated with different measures of smoking initiation, duration, and intensity adjusting for confounding variables. We conducted analyses on the entire study population, among women who had smoked for at least 20 years, among nondrinkers, and separately for each country.RESULTS: Altogether, 1,240 women were diagnosed with incident, invasive breast cancer. Compared with never smokers, women who smoked for at least 20 years and who smoked 10 cigarettes or more daily had a RR of 1.34 (95% CI, 1.06-1.70). Likewise, those who initiated smoking prior to their first birth (1.27, 1.00-1.62), before menarche (1.39, 1.03-1.87), or before age 15 (1.48, 1.03-2.13) had an increased risk. In contrast, women who had smoked for at least 20 years, but started after their first birth, did not experience an increased breast cancer risk. The increased RR associated with smoking was observed among nondrinkers of alcohol, women with and without a family history of breast cancer, premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and in both countries.CONCLUSION: Our results support the notion that women who start smoking as teenagers and continue to smoke for at least 20 years may increase their breast cancer risk.
PubMed ID
15668477 View in PubMed
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Cancer incidence in Arkhangelskaja Oblast in northwestern Russia. The Arkhangelsk Cancer Registry.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature16876
Source
BMC Cancer. 2005;5(1):82
Publication Type
Article
Date
2005
Author
Arild Vaktskjold
Jelena A Lebedintseva
Dmitrij S Korotov
Anatolij V Tkatsjov
Tatjana S Podjakova
Eiliv Lund
Author Affiliation
Institutt for samfunnsmedisin, Universitetet i Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø, Norway. arild.vaktskjold@ism.uit.no
Source
BMC Cancer. 2005;5(1):82
Date
2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Bronchial Neoplasms - epidemiology
Female
Humans
Incidence
Lung Neoplasms - epidemiology
Male
Middle Aged
Neoplasms - epidemiology
Prevalence
Registries
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Russia
Sex Factors
Skin Neoplasms - epidemiology
Stomach Neoplasms - epidemiology
Time Factors
Tracheal Neoplasms - epidemiology
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Data concerning incidence and prevalence of cancer in the different regions of Russia have traditionally not been provided on a basis that facilitated comparison with data from countries in western parts of Europe. The oncological hospital in Arkhangelsk, in co-operation with Universitetet i Tromsø (Norway), has established a population based cancer registry for Arkhangelskaja Oblast (AO). AO is an administrative unit with 1.3 million inhabitants in northwestern Russia. The aim of this investigation was to assess the content and quality of the AO cancer registry (AKR), and to present the site-specific cancer-incidence rates in AO in the period 1993-2001. METHODS: The population in this study consisted of all individuals registered as residents of AO. All new cancer cases in the period 1993-2001, registered the AKR, were included in the study (ICD-10: C00-C95, except for C77-78). The annual gender and age-group-specific population figures were obtained from the AO statistics office. RESULTS: A total of 34,697 cases of primary cancers were included. The age-adjusted (world standard) incidence rate for all sites combined was 164/100,000 for women and 281/100,000 for men. The highest incidence was for cancer of the trachea, bronchus and lung (16.3% of all cases), whereof 88.6 % of the cases were among men. Among women, cancer of the breast constituted 15.9 percent of all cases. The age-adjusted incidences of the most frequent cancer sites among men were: lung (77.4/100,000); stomach (45.9); rectum (13.4); oesophagus (13.0); colon (12.2); bladder (11.6); and prostate cancer (11.1). Among women they were: breast (28.5); stomach (19.7); colon (12.2); and ovary cancer (9.0). CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm and strengthen the indication that the incidences of stomach, larynx, liver, pancreas, prostate, colon, bladder and melanoma cancer are quite different in male populations in Russia compared to many other European countries. Among women, most major cancer types, except stomach, appear to be relatively low in Russian populations. The AKR provides quality data for estimations and insight to the cancer incidence in a northern Russian population, and we consider the reported incidence rates to reflect the cancer situation in AO well.
PubMed ID
16029510 View in PubMed
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Change in levels of persistent organic pollutants in human plasma after consumption of a traditional northern Norwegian fish dish-mølje (cod, cod liver, cod liver oil and hard roe).

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature71408
Source
J Environ Monit. 2003 Feb;5(1):160-5
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-2003
Author
Torkjel M Sandanger
Magritt Brustad
Eiliv Lund
Ivan C Burkow
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute for Air Research, The Polar Environmental Centre, No-9296 Tromsø, Norway. torkjel.sandanger@nilu.no
Source
J Environ Monit. 2003 Feb;5(1):160-5
Date
Feb-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Cod Liver Oil - chemistry
Dichlorodiphenyl Dichloroethylene - analysis - blood
Environmental Pollutants - analysis - blood
Female
Fishes
Food Contamination
Humans
Insecticides - analysis - blood
Liver - chemistry
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - analysis - blood
Public Health
Reproducibility of Results
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Abstract
The traditional northern Norwegian fish dish "mølje", consisting of boiled cod, cod liver, cod liver oil and hard roe, is still consumed frequently during the winter months January to March. The liver of the cod is rich in lipids and the levels of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are relatively high. To better understand the short-term consequences of this traditional meal on the plasma levels of PCBs and p,p'-DDE, individual intake of liver and cod liver oil during one meal was measured. Blood samples were collected from 33 participants before the meal, and then 4 h, 12 h and 5 days after it. Lipid-weight and wet-weight levels of 10 PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE were determined in the plasma samples and the food. The plasma levels of p,p'-DDE was found to increase significantly from 0 to 4 h, both when expressed as wet-weight (35% change) and lipid-weight (20% change). The corresponding changes (0-4 h) in wet-weight levels of the most prevalent PCB congeners were non significant. By contrast, PCB congeners with low levels in the food showed a significant drop in lipid-weight levels during the first 4 h. The observed changes were independent of amount consumed. Significant differences in fasting and non-fasting samples were found for most PCBs and p,p'-DDE. For the lipid weight levels of sum PCBs there was a significant decrease of 16% from non-fasting to fasting samples. To obtain reliable data on human levels of POPs it is, on the basis of these findings, recommended that blood samples should be collected from fasting individuals and both wet-weight and lipid-weight levels should be reported.
PubMed ID
12619772 View in PubMed
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Change in plasma levels of vitamin D after consumption of cod-liver and fresh cod-liver oil as part of the traditional north Norwegian fish dish "Mølje".

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature185563
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2003 Mar;62(1):40-53
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2003
Author
Magritt Brustad
Torkjel Sandanger
Tom Wilsgaard
Lage Aksnes
Eiliv Lund
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway. magritt.brustad@ism.uit.no
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2003 Mar;62(1):40-53
Date
Mar-2003
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Animals
Cod Liver Oil - administration & dosage
Cooking
Dietary Supplements
Female
Fishes
Food Habits
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Norway
Time
Vitamin D - blood
Vitamin D Deficiency - blood
Abstract
To assess changes in plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations after ingestion of , a traditional north Norwegian fish dish rich in vitamin D.
Thirty-three volunteers all living in the city of Tromsø, located in northern Norway (latitude 690), were served a "Mølje" meal consisting of cod, hard roe, cod liver, and fresh cod-liver oil. The amounts of liver, and cod-liver oil consumed were weighed and recorded. Blood samples were collected before the meal, and at 4 hours, 12 hours and 5 days after it. The cod liver and cod-liver oil were analysed for vitamin D content and the plasma samples for the metabolite 25(OH)D. Trends in plasma 25(OH)D levels during the five-day observation period were analysed. The study was conducted at the beginning of April of 2000.
Among the 33 participating subjects, 69.7% had baseline plasma 25(OH)D concentrations below 50 nmol/l and for one-quarter of the subjects, they were
PubMed ID
12725340 View in PubMed
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Characterization of Norwegian women eating wholegrain bread.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature274503
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Oct;18(15):2836-45
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Toril Bakken
Tonje Braaten
Anja Olsen
Eiliv Lund
Guri Skeie
Source
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Oct;18(15):2836-45
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aged
Body mass index
Bread
Cross-Sectional Studies
Diet
Dietary Fiber - administration & dosage
Eating
Edible Grain
Energy intake
Exercise
Female
Food Habits
Health Behavior
Humans
Iron, Dietary - administration & dosage
Life Style
Middle Aged
Norway
Residence Characteristics
Smoking
Thiamine - administration & dosage
Abstract
To investigate dietary and non-dietary characteristics of wholegrain bread eaters in the Norwegian Women and Cancer study.
Cross-sectional study using an FFQ.
Women were divided into two groups according to wholegrain bread consumption.
Adult women (n 69 471).
Median daily consumption of standardized slices of wholegrain bread was 2·5 in the low intake group and 4·5 in the high intake group. The OR for high wholegrain bread consumption was 0·28, 2·19 and 4·63 for the first, third and fourth quartile of energy intake, respectively, compared with the second quartile. Living outside Oslo or in East Norway and having a high level of physical activity were associated with high wholegrain bread consumption. BMI and smoking were inversely associated with wholegrain bread consumption. Intake of many food items was positively associated with wholegrain bread consumption (P trend
PubMed ID
25711149 View in PubMed
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Cigarette smoking and risk of colorectal cancer among Norwegian women.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature152150
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Aug;20(6):895-903
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2009
Author
Inger T Gram
Tonje Braaten
Eiliv Lund
Loic Le Marchand
Elisabete Weiderpass
Author Affiliation
Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Breivika, Tromsø N-9037 Norway. inger.gram@ism.uit.no
Source
Cancer Causes Control. 2009 Aug;20(6):895-903
Date
Aug-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Cohort Studies
Colorectal Neoplasms - etiology - pathology - prevention & control
Confidence Intervals
Data Collection
Female
Humans
Incidence
Middle Aged
Neoplasm Invasiveness - pathology
Norway - epidemiology
Population Surveillance
Proportional Hazards Models
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Registries
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Smoking - adverse effects
Abstract
The association between cigarette smoking and colorectal cancer (CRC) is still not established. In 2002, Norwegian women had the second highest incidence of CRC in the world. A large proportion of Norwegian women are ever smokers. We examined the association between cigarette smoking and CRC incidence among Norwegian women.
We followed 68,160 women, aged 30-69 years, from the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study who completed a questionnaire in 1996 or 1998 by linkages to national registers through 31 December 2005. Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by fitting Cox proportional hazard models. Subsequently, we estimated the population attributable fraction.
Altogether, 425 incident cases of primary, invasive CRC were identified. Ever smokers had a 20% increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.2; 95% CI = 1.0-1.5), a 30% increased risk of colon (RR = 1.3; 95% CI = 1.0-1.7), and a 10% increased risk of rectal (RR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.7-1.5) cancer compared to never smokers. The population attributable fraction was estimated to be 12% which indicated that approximately one in eight of the CRC cases could have been prevented at a population level.
Our results support the hypothesis that cigarette smoking is a preventable cause of CRC among women.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19274482 View in PubMed
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81 records – page 1 of 9.