The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of and possible selection to attend in colorectal cancer screening.
During the years 1979-1980, 1 785 men and women (born in 1917-1929) were invited to a pilot screening project for colorectal cancer. The screening method used was a guaiac-based faecal occult blood test repeated once if the initial test was positive.
Compliance was 69% and the test was positive in 19% of those attending. In a record linkage with the Finnish Cancer Registry, 47 colorectal cancer cases and 24 deaths from colorectal cancer were observed by the end of 2004. In all, the particular test method was not regarded specific enough for population screening. There was, however, no difference in cancer incidence between those who complied and those who did not when compared to the general population of same age and gender.
Compliance was found high enough to make screening feasible and there was no self selection of persons with low cancer risk to attend screening.
Treatments for Hodgkin lymphoma are associated with large relative risks of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but there are few estimates of the excess absolute risk (EAR), a useful measure of disease burden. One-year Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (N = 35,511) were identified within 14 population-based cancer registries in Nordic countries and North America from January 1, 1970, through December 31, 2001. We used Poisson regression analysis to model the EAR of AML, per 10,000 person-years. A total of 217 Hodgkin lymphoma survivors were diagnosed with AML (10.8 expected; unadjusted EAR = 6.2; 95% confidence interval = 5.4 to 7.1). Excess absolute risk for AML was highest during the first 10 years after Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis but remained elevated thereafter. In subsequent analyses, adjusted for time since Hodgkin lymphoma diagnosis and presented for the 5-9 year interval, the EAR was statistically significantly (P or = 35 age groups, respectively), which may be associated with modifications in chemotherapy.
Survival after non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has increased thanks to improved treatment but NHL survivors have an increased risk of second neoplasms. The assessment of cancer risk patterns after NHL may help to quantify the late side-effects of therapy. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and absolute incidence rates for nine solid tumours based on a nationwide cohort of 60 901 NHL survivors from Finland, Norway and Sweden. Patients were diagnosed between 1980 and 2006 and developed 6815 s neoplasms. NHL patients showed an increased risk of each of the nine investigated cancer sites: prostate and pancreas (both RRs 1·28), breast (1·37), colorectum (1·48), urinary bladder (1·52), stomach and lung (both RRs 1·87), skin (melanoma 2·27) and kidney (2·56). The RRs showed a U-shaped relationship with time after NHL for all nine-second cancer types. NHL diagnosis early in life was a risk factor for the development of second cancers with the exception of melanoma, but a risk excess was even observed in patients diagnosed with NHL at age 80+ years. The present study provides accurate estimates on the adverse late effects of NHL therapy, which should guide the establishment of cancer prevention strategies in NHL survivors.
Various components of the coagulation cascade have been linked to breast cancer progression. In vivo results suggest that anticoagulants possess anticancer properties, but there are virtually no studies in human populations. Our nationwide study explored the association between anticoagulant use and breast cancer survival.
All anticoagulants used from 1995 to 2015 in women (n = 73,170) diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in Finland between 1995 and 2013 were identified from the national prescription database; women were identified from the Finnish Cancer Registry. Cox regressions were performed to analyze breast cancer survival as a function of pre- and postdiagnostic anticoagulant use; analyses were conducted for different anticoagulant subtypes and overall. Models were adjusted for age, mammography screening, tumor clinical characteristics, comorbidities, statin use, antidiabetic use, and antihypertensive use. To control for immortal time bias, postdiagnostic anticoagulant use was analyzed as a time-dependent variable.
At a median of 5.8 years after breast cancer diagnosis, 10,900 (15%) women had died from breast cancer. In total, 25,622 (35%) women had used anticoagulants during the study period. Postdiagnostic anticoagulant use increased the risk of breast cancer death (HR = 1.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.33-1.49). The risk was especially high for low-molecular weight heparin, although the effect disappeared in long-term users.
Anticoagulant use provides no clinical benefit for breast cancer survival; however, the association between thrombosis and cancer might mask potential survival benefits.
Future pharmacoepidemiologic studies should adjust for anticoagulant use. Research should focus on the use of new oral anticoagulants because these are rarely studied and might be associated with improved breast cancer survival.
Most studies that have evaluated the association between anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk have suffered from methodological drawbacks. To avoid time-related biases, we evaluated the effect of treatment duration on the cancer risk among naive users of anti-diabetic medication as compared to non-users. In addition, we addressed the influence of common risk factors such as smoking and BMI. The study population comprised 23,394 participants of FINRISK surveys. Data on cancer and anti-diabetic medication were linked with the study cohorts. We applied Lexis tabulation to the data and analyzed split records by using Poisson regression. Changes in cancer incidence in relation to treatment duration were examined by modeling the rate ratio (RR). After a median follow-up of 9 years, 53 cancer cases among users of anti-diabetic medication and 1,028 among non-users were diagnosed. No significant difference in cancer risk between users and non-users was observed after adjustment. The RR for all medication regardless of its duration was 1.01 [95% CI 0.75-1.33], and 1.37 [0.94-1.94] for period of 1-4 years. The results were similar for metformin, sulfonylurea, and insulin. This study demonstrates that evaluation of the variation in cancer risk in relation to treatment duration is of particular importance for enhancing the accuracy of conclusions on the link between exposure to anti-diabetic medication and cancer risk.
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BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated the role of the ubiquitous Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, together with levels of the immunomodulator, vitamin D, in different breast cancer entities. We studied, prospectively, the association of EBV and vitamin D status with the risk of pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC), breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or 1year post-partum, using a nested case-control study. METHODS: Serum vitamin D and antibodies to EBV were measured for 108 PABC cases of the Finnish Maternity Cohort, and 208 controls matched for date of birth, date of sampling and parity. The joint effect of vitamin D and EBV on the risk of PABC was evaluated. RESULTS: EBV seropositivity was generally not associated with the risk of PABC. Among individuals with sufficient (75nmol/l) levels of vitamin D, we, however, found similar increased risk estimates for PABC associated with serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to EBV early antigens [odds ratio (OR)=7.7, 95% (confidence interval) CI 1.4-42.3] and the viral reactivator protein, ZEBRA (OR=7.8, 95% CI 1.1-61.2). CONCLUSION: Immunological markers of EBV reactivation status among individuals with sufficient vitamin D levels were consistently associated with increased risk of the disease. This suggests that EBV reactivation may be an indicator of the progression of breast cancer occurring soon after pregnancy, while the virus probably is not the aetiological agent.
A case-control study was nested within two maternity cohorts with a total of 7 million years of follow-up for assessment of the role of bacterial infections in childhood leukemia. Offspring of 550,000 mothers in Finland and Iceland were combined to form a joint cohort that was followed for cancer up to age 15 years during 1975-1997 through national cancer registries. For each index mother-case pair, three or four matched control mother-control pairs were identified from population registers. First-trimester serum samples were retrieved from mothers of 341 acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases and 61 other leukemia cases and from 1,212 control mothers. Sera were tested for antibodies to the genus Chlamydia, Helicobacter pylori, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusted for sibship size, were calculated as estimates of relative risk. M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M appeared to be associated with increased risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6), but the association lost statistical significance when the specificity of the immunoglobulin M was considered (OR = 1.5, 95% confidence interval: 0.9, 2.4). In Iceland, H. pylori immunoglobulin G was associated with increased risk of childhood leukemia in offspring (OR = 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.1, 6.9). Since H. pylori immunoglobulin G indicates chronic carriage of the microorganism, early colonization of the offspring probably differs between Iceland and Finland, two affluent countries.
To study the incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) of the eyelid in Finland.
We studied 6241 cases of BCC of the eyelid reported to the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry during 1953-97. We determined the age- and sex- specific incidence rates and overall rates adjusted for age to the world standard population, and social class- and occupation-specific standardized incidence ratios, with the total Finnish population as reference.
The incidence rates of BCC of the eyelid varied between 0.7 and 3.0 per 100 000 person-years in men and between 0.5 and 2.8 per 100 000 person-years in women during the study period. The age-adjusted incidence rates of BCC of the eyelid increased during 1953-87 (p
The Nordic countries have a long tradition of register-based epidemiologic studies. Numerous population-based specialized registers offer high-quality data from individuals, and the extensive use of register data further improves the quality of the registers. Unique personal identity codes given to every resident and used in all registers guarantee easy and accurate record linkage. A legislation that makes the use of the existing data possible for purposes that benefit both registered individuals and the society - instead of forcing researchers to use their energy in repeated questionnaire studies, disturbing individuals' privacy and leading to response and recall biases - is a prerequisite for effective epidemiologic research. Biobanks can be considered an additional type of registers. They may offer data from individuals that cannot be reliably collected via questionnaire surveys. In turn, other types of registers are crucial in biobank-based studies (1) in defining for how long the persons in biobank cohorts are at risk of getting the diseases, (2) to get information on cofactors that may modify the relative risk measured by the biomarkers, and (3) to get information on the long-term outcome events. This chapter describes the possibilities of register use mainly in Finland - a typical representative of the Nordic "paradise of register-based epidemiological research" - in research of cancer etiology. The ongoing Nordic research project Changing work life and cancer risk in the Nordic countries (NOCCA) will be described as an example of a massive register use, including both direct linkages on an individual level and indirect group level linkages.