Skip header and navigation

Refine By

17 records – page 1 of 2.

Alcohol and drug use among motor vehicle collision victims admitted to a regional trauma unit: demographic, injury, and crash characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature220578
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1993 Aug;25(4):411-20
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-1993
Author
G. Stoduto
E. Vingilis
B M Kapur
W J Sheu
B A McLellan
C B Liban
Author Affiliation
Prevention and Health Promotion Research and Development, Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1993 Aug;25(4):411-20
Date
Aug-1993
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents - statistics & numerical data
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking - blood - epidemiology
Automobile Driving - statistics & numerical data
Demography
Ethanol - blood
Female
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Off-Road Motor Vehicles
Ontario - epidemiology
Prospective Studies
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Trauma Centers
Trauma Severity Indices
Abstract
This study examined the incidence of alcohol and drugs in a sample of seriously injured motor vehicle collision victims, and differences related to pre-crash use of alcohol and/or other drugs on demographic variables, injury severity measures, and crash variables. The sample selected were all motor vehicle collision admissions to the Regional Trauma Unit at the Sunnybrook Health Science Centre in Toronto, Ontario, over a 37-month period (N = 854). Prospective demographic and injury-related information were collected from hospital charts, and crash data were collected from motor vehicle collision police reports. Blood samples were routinely collected on admission and tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC). We found 32.0% of the BAC-tested motor vehicle collision admissions and 35.5% of drivers tested positive for blood alcohol. The drivers' mean BAC on admission was found to be 145.2 mg/100 ml, and the mean estimated BAC at crash time was 181 mg/100 ml. Drug screens were performed on a two-year subsample (n = 474), of whom 339 were drivers. Drug screens revealed that 41.3% of drivers tested positive for other drugs in body fluids, and 16.5% were positive for alcohol in combination with other drugs. Other than alcohol, the drugs most frequently detected in the drivers were cannabinoids (13.9%), benzodiazepines (12.4%), and cocaine (5.3%). Investigation of differences on demographic, injury, and crash characteristics related to precrash use of alcohol and/or drugs yielded significant findings. In the drug screened sample we found sex, admission type, and occupant status were related to precrash alcohol use. Also, use of drugs was found to interact with admission type and mean BAC on admission. Elapsed time was found to be significantly different for BAC by other drug use, with a greater length of elapsed time found for the subjects testing other drug positive but BAC negative. We found that BAC-positive drug-screened drivers were significantly more likely to be male, involved in a single-vehicle collision, not wearing a seat belt, ejected from the vehicle, and travelling at higher speeds than BAC negative drivers. No significant differences were found between BAC and/or other drug use on injury severity measures.
PubMed ID
8357454 View in PubMed
Less detail

An evaluation of the deterrent impact of Ontario's 12-hour licence suspension law.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature233538
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1988 Feb;20(1):9-17
Publication Type
Article
Date
Feb-1988
Author
E. Vingilis
H. Blefgen
H. Lei
K. Sykora
R. Mann
Author Affiliation
Department of Preventive Medicine and Biostatistics, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Source
Accid Anal Prev. 1988 Feb;20(1):9-17
Date
Feb-1988
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - prevention & control
Alcohol Drinking
Automobile Driving
Humans
Legislation as Topic
Licensure
Ontario
Abstract
The deterrent impact of Ontario's 12-hour licence suspension law, a law intended to mete out swift punishment is evaluated. A process model of deterrence is included. Time series analyses of the monthly log odds of number of positive B.A.C. fatalities over the number of negative B.A.C. fatalities indicated a small, short-term effect. The intermediate measures of four surveys of media coverage, Toronto residents, Ontario residents, and police forces supported these results, and affirmed the potential validity of the process model of deterrence. The results suggest that laws to increase the celerity and certainty of punishment will have little deterrent impact without enforcement and publicity of the new laws.
PubMed ID
3337768 View in PubMed
Less detail

Blood alcohol concentrations among motor vehicle accident trauma admissions to a regional trauma unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature232543
Source
Can J Public Health. 1988 Sep-Oct;79(5):392-3
Publication Type
Article

Blood alcohol testing of motor vehicle crash admissions at a regional trauma unit.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature229343
Source
J Trauma. 1990 Apr;30(4):418-21
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1990
Author
B A McLellan
E. Vingilis
C B Liban
G. Stoduto
R Y McMurtry
W R Nelson
Author Affiliation
Regional Trauma Unit, Sunnybrook Medical Centre, University of Toronto, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Source
J Trauma. 1990 Apr;30(4):418-21
Date
Apr-1990
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Accidents, Traffic - statistics & numerical data
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Aged, 80 and over
Alcohol Drinking
Automobile Driving
Demography
Ethanol - blood
Female
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario - epidemiology
Seasons
Trauma Centers
Wounds and Injuries - blood
Abstract
Motor vehicle crashes remain a leading cause of death and injury in the industrialized world. Alcohol consumption is implicated as a major factor in fatal motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), but only poor estimates of blood alcohol concentrations among nonfatally injured crash victims are available. A 3-year study was undertaken at a Regional Trauma Unit to determine the demographics, injury severity, and alcohol positivity of motor vehicle crash victims. Between August 1, 1986 and July 31, 1989, 825 motor vehicle crash victims were available for study; 368 drivers were admitted to the unit within a period of 4 hours. Of 715 patients tested for alcohol, 31.0% were positive. A total of 333 drivers were tested for blood alcohol; 128 (38.4%) were positive. The mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at admission for the drivers was 145.6 mg/100 ml; the estimated mean BAC at crash was 180.9 mg/100 ml. The mean age of BAC positive drivers was 31.4 years, compared to a mean age in the BAC negative drivers of 35.2 years (p less than 0.02). Male patients represented 76.6% of the drivers, yet represented 83.6% of the BAC positive drivers (p less than 0.05). There was a marked seasonal variation in BAC positivity, with 46.1% of drivers positive during the summer months. Alcohol appears to be a significant factor in nonfatal MVCs.
PubMed ID
2325171 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changing drinking-and-driving behaviour: the effects of Ontario's administrative driver's licence suspension law.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198740
Source
CMAJ. 2000 Apr 18;162(8):1141-2
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-18-2000
Author
R E Mann
R G Smart
G. Stoduto
E M Adlaf
E. Vingilis
D. Beirness
R. Lamble
Author Affiliation
Prevention and Health Policy Research Department, Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Toronto, Ont. robert_mann@camh.net
Source
CMAJ. 2000 Apr 18;162(8):1141-2
Date
Apr-18-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alcohol Drinking - legislation & jurisprudence
Automobile Driving - legislation & jurisprudence - psychology
Breath Tests
Ethanol - blood
Humans
Licensure - legislation & jurisprudence
Ontario
Notes
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 1988 Feb;20(1):9-173337768
Cites: Accid Anal Prev. 1991 Dec;23(6):483-911772551
PubMed ID
10789629 View in PubMed
Less detail

Common colds. Reported patterns of self-care and health care use.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200093
Source
Can Fam Physician. 1999 Nov;45:2644-6, 2649-52
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-1999
Author
E. Vingilis
U. Brown
B. Hennen
Author Affiliation
Population and Community Health Unit, University of Western Ontario in London. evingili@julian.uwo.ca
Source
Can Fam Physician. 1999 Nov;45:2644-6, 2649-52
Date
Nov-1999
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Common Cold - epidemiology - therapy
Female
Health Surveys
Humans
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - therapy
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Referral and Consultation - utilization
Self Care - utilization
Abstract
To describe the self-reported prevalence and patterns of self-care and health care use for colds and flu.
Using the expert panel method, a questionnaire was developed to explore self-care practices, attitudes, pharmaceutical use, and health care use for a range of cold and flu symptoms.
London and Windsor, Ont.
Using a random-digit-dialing survey method, 210 residents were interviewed between November and December 1993. Of 1484 telephone numbers called, 1179 calls were ineligible. Two hundred ten questionnaires were completed for 305 eligible respondents.
Demographic data, typical self-care practices, actual practice during respondents' last cold, opinions on appropriate practices, and knowledge of how to treat colds.
Self-care was respondents' treatment of choice, and most respondents use over-the-counter drugs. Prescription drug use was low. Only 1% reported seeing a physician for their last cold. As the number of symptoms increased, however, reported use of over-the-counter drugs and calls or visits to doctors increased.
Results are congruent with other studies showing that the health care practices of most respondents are consistent with low use of the health care system and high levels of self-care for colds and flu.
Notes
Cites: Med Care. 1972 Mar-Apr;10(2):143-635015412
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1979 Mar 8;300(10):535-7763254
Cites: Med Care. 1979 Nov;17(11):1139-45502616
Cites: Soc Sci Med A. 1981 Sep;15(5):673-877034214
Cites: Med Care. 1984 Oct;22(10):950-666492904
Cites: J Chronic Dis. 1985;38(1):27-363972947
Cites: J Fam Pract. 1998 Nov;47(5):366-99834772
Cites: Health Educ Q. 1992 Spring;19(1):1-81568869
Cites: Br J Gen Pract. 1992 Aug;42(361):313-61457150
Cites: Can Fam Physician. 1993 Oct;39:2215-6; 2219-208219868
Cites: Health Educ Q. 1993 Winter;20(4):569-838307773
Cites: Fam Pract. 1996 Feb;13(1):75-838671107
Cites: Health Educ Res. 1998 Mar;13(1):33-4610178337
Cites: JAMA. 1988 Feb 5;259(5):647-83336182
PubMed ID
10587772 View in PubMed
Less detail

A critique of an evaluation of the impact of hospital bed closures in Winnipeg, Canada: lessons to be learned from evaluation research methods.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature213174
Source
J Public Health Policy. 1996;17(4):409-25
Publication Type
Article
Date
1996
Author
E. Vingilis
J. Burkell
Source
J Public Health Policy. 1996;17(4):409-25
Date
1996
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Health Expenditures
Health Facility Closure
Health Policy
Health Services Accessibility
Health Services Research - methods
Hospital Bed Capacity
Humans
Manitoba
Quality of Health Care
Abstract
In the last few years, the continuing increases in health care expenditures have led to a call for greater accountability in health care and have spurred evaluative research into the area of health care policy. Yet the challenge has been to develop health care policy evaluations that maximize the rigor of the evaluation process within the constraints and limitations of evaluation milieus. This paper describes the principles of evaluation research and, using the example of a study evaluating the impact of hospital bed closures on community health status in Winnipeg, Canada, demonstrates the epistemological, methodological and interpretive problems that can occur when these principles are not followed. The conclusions are that studies which fail to outline the causal links between policy actions and outcomes, and use designs and methods which threaten internal and external validity, are limited in their abilities to elucidate the impact of health care policy changes.
Notes
Comment In: J Public Health Policy. 1997;18(4):469-71; author reply 472-49519622
PubMed ID
9009537 View in PubMed
Less detail

The development of self-rated health during adolescence: an exploration of inter- and intra-cohort effects.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature201998
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Mar-Apr;90(2):90-4
Publication Type
Article
Author
T J Wade
E. Vingilis
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary. terrance.wade@CRHA-Health.ab.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 1999 Mar-Apr;90(2):90-4
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Psychology
Analysis of Variance
Attitude to Health
Cluster analysis
Cohort Studies
Female
Health Status Indicators
Humans
Male
Ontario - epidemiology
Prevalence
Risk-Taking
Self-Assessment
Socioeconomic Factors
Substance-Related Disorders - epidemiology
Abstract
Self-rated health is a commonly used measure of physical health status. While the development of one's perception of self-rated health likely occurs during childhood and adolescence, its development has been largely unexplored. This study addresses this issue by examining the relationship between adolescent self-rated health and personal (sex, age) and situation (family structure, family income) factors at five different time intervals to identify inter- and intra-cohort effects as well as concomitant changes in adolescent health compromising behaviour, specifically substance use. Five waves between 1989 and 1997 of the biennial Ontario Student Drug Use Survey (OSDUS) by the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) consisting of 19,512 cases were examined. The results indicate the presence of both inter- and intra-cohort effects on self-rated health. In addition, health-compromising behaviours had a varied effect on self-rated health across grade. This analysis confirms some previous findings but also presents contradictory evidence by identifying the complexity of relationships among these factors and self-rated health.
PubMed ID
10349213 View in PubMed
Less detail

Evaluation of a cold/flu self-care public education campaign.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature206720
Source
Health Educ Res. 1998 Mar;13(1):33-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-1998
Author
E. Vingilis
U. Brown
R. Koeppen
B. Hennen
M. Bass
K. Peyton
J. Downe
M. Stewart
Author Affiliation
Population and Community Health Unit, Faculty of Medicine, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
Source
Health Educ Res. 1998 Mar;13(1):33-46
Date
Mar-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Common Cold - therapy
Female
Health Education - organization & administration
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
Humans
Influenza, Human - therapy
Linear Models
Male
Middle Aged
Ontario
Program Evaluation
Self Care
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate an Ontario Ministry of Health (MOH) cold/flu self-care public education campaign to reduce unnecessary patient visits to doctors. The MOH campaign consisted of an information booklet delivered to every household in an Ontario city, newspaper ads and radio spots. The program ran during January-March 1994. The evaluation consisted of: (1) 2x2 telephone survey in London (experimental area) and Windsor (comparison area), before and during the campaign; and (2) a telephone survey of London family practitioners during the campaign. In addition, data on the incidence of cold/flu visits to three hospital emergency departments and a sample of family physicians' offices were gathered. The data suggest that program rationale may have been questionable because the majority of the surveyed public were knowledgeable and self-reported appropriate doctor visits for cold/flu. Campaign evaluation showed limited impact. Message penetration was low; only one-third of London residents knew of the campaign or read the booklet. Only two of 10 questions showed increases in knowledge in London and no changes were found for beliefs, attitudes, acquisition of new health practices or self-reported visits to the doctor. The physician survey, emergency room and family physician office visit data were consistent with the public survey findings.
PubMed ID
10178337 View in PubMed
Less detail

17 records – page 1 of 2.