Analysis of MHC region genetics in Finnish patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: evidence for different locus-specific effects in polyarticular vs pauciarticular subsets and a shared DRB1 epitope.
This study used Finnish juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) probands with pauciarticular and rheumatoid factor (RF) negative polyarticular subtypes of JIA to further define the genetic susceptibility to JIA. We examined 16 markers spanning an 18 cM region of chromosome 6 encompassing the MHC and surrounding genomic region in a set of 235 Finnish JIA nuclear families and 639 Finnish control individuals. Analysis by case/control association and transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) methods each demonstrated strong evidence for a susceptibility locus near the D6S2447 microsatellite (P
Markers on chromosome 4q have recently been shown to be associated with insulin resistance in Pima Indians, a population in which insulin resistance precedes and predicts the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). To examine whether genes in this region could play a major role in susceptibility to NIDDM in other populations, we have examined the allele frequencies of a trinucleotide repeat near the fatty acid-binding protein 2 (FABP2) gene on 4q28-31 in three European populations: Finnish, U.K. Caucasian, and Welsh. The U.K. NIDDM population was selected for insulin resistance by studying patients whose obesity-corrected fasting plasma insulin before treatment was above the 98th percentile. Seven alleles were detected. On cross-tabulation analysis, there were no significant associations between allele frequencies and glucose intolerance in any of the populations. Log-linear analysis of the results from all three populations suggested a moderately significant interaction of glucose tolerance status (normal versus diabetic) and the FABP2 allele (partial chi 2 = 24, df 6, P = 0.027). The parameter describing the interaction of allele A3 and glucose tolerance status was the only such parameter differing significantly from zero (z-score +2.003, P = 0.046). In both the Finnish and U.K. population, the A3 allele was found approximately twice as frequently in NIDDM than in control subjects (Finnish control subjects, impaired glucose tolerance, and NIDDM: 12.2, 22.4, and 26.6%, respectively; U.K. control subjects and NIDDM: 7.8 and 14.6%, respectively). In the Finnish populations, no associations were found between FABP2 alleles and plasma insulin levels or with homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) estimates of beta-cell function and insulin sensitivity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
To compare nationwide incidence of childhood insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in children aged 0-14 yr between Estonia and Finland during 1980-1988. For Estonia, which has a population genetically and linguistically related to Finland, only limited information was available. Finland has the highest incidence of IDDM in the world.
The registration of all new cases of IDDM in Estonia was conducted by the local district pediatricians who reported every newly diagnosed diabetic patient to the Republic Endocrinology Centre. Registration of all new cases of IDDM in Finland was based on the statistics of the Social Insurance Institution, which approves free-of-charge insulin treatment for diabetes. These data were validated with one or more additional data sources. The case ascertainment rate approached 100% in both countries.
The average yearly incidence of IDDM standardized for age for the years 1980-1988 in Estonia was approximately 33% of that in Finland. Among males it was 11.3 (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.3-12.3) per 100,000 in Estonia and 35.1 (95% CI 33.4-36.9) per 100,000 in Finland, and among females 10.1 (95% CI 9.2-11.1) per 100,000 in Estonia and 30.4 (95% CI 28.8-32.1) per 100,000 in Finland. When the two periods 1980-1982 and 1986-1988 were compared, the age-standardized incidence in Estonia remained unchanged, whereas in Finland it increased approximately 20%.
The data between two populations who are ethnically and linguistically similar and live geographically close but in a different environment, provides further evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are contributing to the risk of IDDM.
Susceptibility to insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) correlates with the absence of aspartic acid in position 57 of the DQB1 and/or the presence of arginine in position 52 of the DQA1. It has been postulated that transcomplementation between the DQ alpha and beta chains of the two haplotypes could create new molecules conferring susceptibility to IDDM. Finland has the highest incidence of IDDM in the world (35/100,000). In a nationwide study of IDDM in childhood (DiMe study) HLA genotyping using conventional serology was carried out according to genetic-epidemiological principles. We simulated DQA1 and DQB1 alleles in 707 consecutively diagnosed IDDM probands and 98 non-diabetic children based on serology, restriction fragment length polymorphism results and sequence data assuming no recombination between DQ and DR. In 34% of Finnish children with IDDM all four combinations (two in cis and two in trans) could lead to SS heterodimers. Two-thirds of these combinations were explained by DR3,DR4 heterozygotes. In 50% of IDDM children half and in 11% a quarter of the combinations could lead to heterodimers. In 38 IDDM patients (5%) the formation of hybrid molecules was not possible. In 59% of the controls SS heterodimers were possible and should therefore have an underlying genetic susceptible for IDDM assuming the theory of transcomplementation is correct. These findings, together with the fact that the lowest frequency of DR3,DR4 heterozygosity (21%) was seen in Finland, show that heterozygosity for DQ and DR cannot explain the differences seen in IDDM incidence.
A nationwide study of childhood Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus was established in 1986 in Finland, the country with the highest incidence of this disease worldwide. The aim of the project called "Childhood Diabetes in Finland" is to evaluate the role of genetic, environmental and immunological factors and particularly the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in the development of Type 1 diabetes. From September 1986 to April 1989, 801 families with a newly-diagnosed child aged 14 years or younger at the time of diagnosis were invited to participate in this study. The vast majority of the families agreed to participate in the comprehensive investigations of the study. HLA genotypes and haplotypes were determined in 757 families (95%). Our study also incorporates a prospective family study among non-diabetic siblings aged 3-19 years, and two case-control studies among the young-onset cases of Type 1 diabetes. During 1987-1989, the overall incidence of Type 1 diabetes was about 35.2 per 100,000 per year. It was higher in boys (38.4) than in girls (32.2). There was no clear geographic variation in incidence among the 12 provinces of Finland. Of the 1,014 cases during these 3 years only six cases were diagnosed before their first birthday. The incidence was high already in the age group 1-4-years old: 33.2 in boys and 29.5 in girls. Of the 801 families 90 (11.2%) were multiple case families, of which 66 had a parent with Type 1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis of the proband.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Great spatial variation in the incidence of IDDM is found among countries around the Baltic Sea, a relative small area on the global scale. We present recent data on IDDM incidence from countries around the Baltic Sea, monthly variation and time trends in incidence from the early 1980s to the early 1990s. The change in IDDM incidence was calculated from logarithms of incidence using linear regression. The incidence was high in the countries to the north and west from the Baltic Sea, being the highest in Finland (35 per 100,000/year) followed by Sweden (26), Denmark (22) and Norway (21). In the countries on the eastern and southern coast of the Baltic Sea the incidence was markedly lower, in Estonia the incidence (10) was the highest within these countries, though slightly less than one third of that in Finland, while it was in Lithuania 7, Latvia 7 and Poland 6. There was an increasing trend in incidence of IDDM in Finland, Norway and Poland. In Sweden the incidence increased from 1978 to 1984, but since then the trend has been flat. In Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, no significant change in incidence was seen. The reasons for large differences observed in the incidence of IDDM between countries around the Baltic Sea area are unknown, but a complex interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors that can vary in different ethnic, socio-economic and cultural settings play an important role in this variation.
Estimation of transmission probabilities in families ascertained through a proband with variable age-at-onset disease: application to the HLA A, B and DR loci in Finnish families with type 1 diabetes. The DiMe Study Group.
An open problem of some interest in the study of HLA has been the possible existence of transmission distortion in the human HLA complex. In this paper, transmission probabilities are estimated and tested using data on HLA A, B and DR loci genotypes of parents and offspring ascertained from the entire population of Finland (Childhood Diabetes in Finland Study) through one or more offspring diagnosed with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during the recruitment period from September 1986 to July 1989. First, we show how to get unbiased estimates of transmission probabilities from the family data collected in the disease registry of incident cases. This is accomplished by assuming that transmission of HLA genes to children in the general population is conditionally independent given the parents' genotypes, and the birth dates of all offspring. Based on the sampling (ascertainment) process in the study on Childhood Diabetes in Finland, younger siblings of the index child (the oldest proband) are independent of the ascertainment and therefore give rise to unbiased inference regarding allele transmission. The hypothesis of Mendelian transmission of alleles at each locus was tested using the standard chi(2) test. Goodness-of-fit of the Mendelian inheritance model to the individual locus data is calculated by maximizing the likelihood function over allele transmission intensities at each locus. The existence of a strong transmission distortion is not supported by this study at the loci considered.
Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease with a strong association between disease and the HLA class II region. Because abnormal antigen processing, in part characterized by altered class I processing, has been identified in patients with IDDM, the TAP (transporter associated with antigen processing) genes located in the HLA class II region make attractive candidate genes for IDDM. Five coding region variants of TAP1 were typed in a cohort of well characterized Finnish patients with diabetes (n = 119) and compared to racially marched control subjects (n = 92). We found that although no single TAP1 polymorphism was associated with IDDM, a genotypic combination of Ile/Val at codon 333 with Asp/Asp at codon 637 was found more frequently in subjects with IDDM (9.4%) compared to controls (1.2%; p = 0.025). This could not be accounted for by an association with any particular haplotype defined by class I or class II serology.
The risk of developing diabetes is higher in offspring of fathers than of mothers with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). The reasons for this sex differential are unclear, as early studies were often selected and relatively small. We conducted a prospective study on the risk of IDDM in a cohort of 9,453 offspring from 5,255 Finnish parents with diabetes diagnosed before age 30 years. Age of first admission to the hospital was considered to be the age of diagnosis of IDDM in the offspring; IDDM occurred in 248 offspring. The risk of IDDM tended to be lower in the offspring of the same gender as the diabetic parent (adjusted risk ratio (RR) 0.78; p = 0.50). When offspring were of same gender as the diabetic parent, male offspring had a higher risk of IDDM than female offspring (RR 2.28; 95% confidence interval 1.53-3.38), whereas if the gender of the diabetic parent and the offspring were different, the risk in male offspring was lower (RR 0.43; 95% confidence interval 0.31-0.62). For the offspring of diabetic fathers, the cumulative risk by the age of 20 was higher (7.6%) than for those with diabetic mothers (3.5%) (p