To see, if voluntary admission for treatment in first-episode psychosis results in better adherence to treatment and more favourable outcome than involuntary admission.
We compared consecutively first-admitted, hospitalised patients from a voluntary (n = 91) with an involuntary (n = 126) group as to psychopathology and functioning using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scales at baseline, after 3 months and at 2 year follow-up. Moreover, duration of supportive psychotherapy, medication and number of hospitalisations during the 2 years were measured.
More women than men were admitted involuntarily. Voluntary patients had less psychopathology and better functioning than involuntary patients at baseline. No significant difference as to duration of psychotherapy and medication between groups was found. No significant difference was found as to psychopathology and functioning between voluntarily and involuntarily admitted patients at follow-up.
Legal admission status per se did not seem to influence treatment adherence and outcome.
A reinvestigation of a Danish family with X-linked inherited congenital nystagmus through 6 generations revealed a congenital stationary retinal dysfunction syndrome with characteristics of both incomplete congenital stationary night blindness and Aland Eye Disease. In spite of rather uniform electrophysiological findings in our patients, this retinal disorder which affects both cones and rods demonstrated considerable intrafamilial diversity with respect to visual acuity, nystagmus, refractive state and fundus pigmentation.
Choriocarcinoma is a rare malignancy in Scandinavia. We present a case of a young primigravida who experienced an uneventful pregnancy and gave birth to a healthy baby. Six days after delivery she underwent neurosurgery for intracranial hemorrhage. Pathological examination of the evacuated hematoma revealed metastatic choriocarcinoma. Further work-up exposed additional metastases in the lungs and liver. The initial serum level of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) was 350,000 IU/I. Chemotherapy was given both intravenously and intrathecally. At 10 weeks, beta-HCG had returned to normal. Treatment was continued for another 10 weeks. Two years after cessation of therapy the patient is still in complete remission. In the discussion we review a scoring system to be used in selecting the mode of treatment, and briefly mention diagnosis and prognosis.
To describe 1-year outcome in a large clinical epidemiologic sample of first-episode psychosis and its predictors.
A total of 301 patients with first-episode psychosis from four healthcare sectors in Norway and Denmark receiving common assessments and standardized treatment were evaluated at baseline, at 3 months, and at 1 year.
Substantial clinical and social improvements occurred within the first 3 months. At 1-year 66% were in remission, 11% in relapse, and 23% continuously psychotic. Female gender and better premorbid functioning were predictive of less severe negative symptoms. Shorter DUP was predictive for shorter time to remission, stable remission, less severe positive symptoms, and better social functioning. Female gender, better premorbid social functioning and more education also contributed to a better social functioning.
This first-episode sample, being well treated, may be typical of the early course of schizophrenia in contemporary centers.
Many goose species feed on agricultural land, and with growing goose numbers, conflicts with agriculture are increasing. One possible solution is to designate refuge areas where farmers are paid to leave geese undisturbed. Here, we present a generic modelling tool that can be used to designate the best locations for refuges and to gauge the area needed to accommodate the geese. With a species distribution model, locations are ranked according to goose suitability. The size of the area to be designated as refuge can be chosen by including more or less suitable locations. A resource depletion model is then used to estimate whether enough resources are available within the designated refuge to accommodate all geese, taking into account the dynamics of food resources, including depletion by geese. We illustrate this with the management scheme for pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus implemented in Norway. Here, all geese can be accommodated, but damage levels appear to depend on weather, land use and refuge size.
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The needs of Urban American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations are often not well understood. In order to inform programs and services, the Urban Indian Center of Salt Lake (UIC-SL), in cooperation with researchers from the University of Utah, undertook a community needs assessment of AI/AN living along Utah's Wasatch Front. A 60-item questionnaire was developed to capture information about health status, services used, unmet needs, and common sources of information about AI/AN community events and activities. Study participants (n?=?336) were a convenience sample. Descriptive statistics, including mean, standard deviation, percentage, and 95% confidence intervals, were calculated. The most common health provider diagnosed medical conditions included hypertension, obesity, and diabetes. The prevalence of violence, substance abuse, and mental health conditions were also high among study participants and their families. Compared to the general Utah population, study participants experienced disparities relative to diabetes prevalence, cognitive and visual disabilities, and access to health care. In addition to health care services, respondents indicated a need for cultural, social, and educational programs. They also reported high levels of technology use, suggesting a possible avenue for communicating with this population. This community-based participatory research project provided rich information about the unmet needs of this urban AI/AN population. The results will be used to guide UIC-SL strategic planning, and a database created for this project will be available for future data collection, allowing for comparison of results between sites and over time.
Forty-three patients committed for treatment in Copenhagen county were interviewed on their discharge from hospital. Half of the patients felt better after hospitalization, while one fourth of the patients were dissatisfied. Food, changes in housing and human contact were given as examples of the positive outcome. One half of the patients were given compulsory medication and one fourth were physically restrained. The patients experienced many adverse effects of the medication. It is recommended, that psychiatrists are involved to a higher degree in evaluation and treatment before decisions for compulsory hospitalization are taken. Investigations are needed to find predictors for a positive outcome in involuntary hospitalization. Unnecessary hospitalization should be avoided in order not to harm the patient-doctor relationship.
Forty-three patients committed for treatment in Copenhagen County were interviewed about their rights, protection of rights and consequences of the commitment. Very few patients felt they had been properly informed about their rights and they knew very little about how to complain to the authorities about their commitment. Attorneys were found to have too little competence and insufficient training, and patients felt insecure about their attorneys' role. One forth of the patients agreed that they had to be committed, while one forth never accepted their commitment. Difficulties in giving information to the psychotic patient with disturbances in cognition and on unrealistic way of thinking are discussed. It is concluded, that there is a need to strengthen patients' rights, but not at the expense of the possibility of delay in administering treatment.
Eight hundred thirty-nine clinical stage I endometrial carcinoma patients diagnosed between 1979 and 1988 were treated at the University Hospital in Linköping. Forty-two (5%) had uterine papillary serous carcinoma of which 52% died of their disease. The recurrence rate, defined as new evidence of disease 6 months or more after termination of the initial treatment, was 31% among the UPSC patients compared to 6% in the non-UPSC group. The site of recurrence also differed significantly between the two groups, with the abdomen as the most common site among UPSC patients (46%) and the vagina (34%) among the ordinary adenocarcinoma patients. All UPSC patients with recurrence died of their malignancy compared to 61% of the ordinary adenocarcinoma patients. Ninety percent of isolated vaginal recurrences in ordinary adenocarcinoma patients (17) were diagnosed at a scheduled outpatient checkup. Of these, 13 are alive with no known disease after treatment.