The study was carried out to determine the associations of alcohol beverage drinking with macronutrients, antioxidants, and body mass index.
Dietary subsample of the 1992 Finmonica cardiovascular risk factor survey in Finland; a cross-sectional study.
985 women and 863 men were drawn from the population register in the four monitoring areas. All subjects were 25-64 y of age.
The mailed questionnaire included questions covering socioeconomic factors, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The diet was assessed using a three-day food record.
The dietary differences between abstainers and alcohol consumers were more significant than between consumers of different alcoholic beverages. Among drinkers, fat intake as a percentage of energy was higher and carbohydrate intake was lower than among abstainers. Those who preferred wine, however, had the highest vitamin C intake; female wine drinkers also had the highest carotenoid intake. With the exception of those who mainly preferred spirits, alcohol energy was not added to the diet but seemed to substitute food items both in men and women. Despite the similar total daily energy intakes, daily energy expenditure, and physical activity index, male drinkers were leaner than abstainers. In women, the proportion of underreporters of energy intake increased with increasing alcohol consumption, and the association between alcohol and body mass index was similar to that in men after the exclusion of underreporters.
Alcohol consumers were leaner than abstainers, and wine drinkers in particular had more antioxidants in their diet.
AIMS: The Nordic countries have relatively equal employment participation between men and women, but some differences between countries exist in labour market participation. The aim was to examine the association between employment status and health among women and men in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and analyse whether this association is modified by marital status and parental status. METHODS: The data come from nationally representative cross-sectional surveys carried out in Denmark (n = 2,209), Finland (n = 4,604), Norway (n = 1,844) and Sweden (n = 5,360) in 1994-95. Women and men aged 25-49 were included. Employment status was categorized into full-time employed, part-time employed, unemployed, and housewives among women and into employed and unemployed among men. Health was measured by perceived health and limiting longstanding illness. Logistic regression analysis was used, adjusting for age and education. Marital status and parental status were analysed as modifying factors. RESULTS: The non-employed were more likely to report perceived health as below good and limiting longstanding illness than the employed among both women and men. The association between employment status and perceived health remained unchanged when marital status and parental status were adjusted for among all men and Finnish women, but the association was slightly strengthened among Danish and Swedish women, with the housewives becoming more likely to report ill health than employed women. The association between employment status and limiting longstanding illness was slightly strengthened among women, and slightly weakened among Norwegian men when marital and parental status were adjusted for. CONCLUSIONS: Non-employment was associated with poorer health in all countries, although there are differences in the employment patterns between the countries. Among women marital status and parental status showed a modest or no influence on the association between employment status and health. Among men there was no such influence.
This study examined whether the association of household income with fresh fruit and vegetable consumption varies by the level of education. Data were derived from mail surveys carried out during 2000-2002 among 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n=8960, response rate 67%). Education was categorized into three levels, and the household income was divided into quartiles weighted by household size. The outcome was consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables at least twice a day (58% among women and 33% among men). Beta-binomial regression analysis was used. Among women, higher income resulted in equally higher consumption of fruit and vegetables at all educational levels, that is, similar among those with low, intermediate and high education. Among men, the pattern was otherwise similar; however, men with intermediate education differed from those with low education. We conclude that the absolute cost of healthy food is likely to have a role across all income groups.
The Nordic countries, referring here to Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have often been viewed as a group of countries with many features in common, such as geographical location, history, culture, religion, language, and economic and political structures. It has also been habitual to refer to a "Nordic model" of welfare states comprising a large public sector, active labour market policies, high costs for social welfare as well as high taxes, and a general commitment to social equality. Recent research suggests that much of this "Nordicness" appears to remain despite the fact that the Nordic countries have experienced quite different changes during the 1980s and 1990s. How this relates to changes in health inequalities is in the focus of this supplement.
Different types of non-parental childcare have been found to associate with childhood overweight in several, but not all studies. Studies on the matter are mainly North American.
The objective of our study was to examine associations between childcare use and overweight in Finland.
The cross-sectional and partly retrospective data consists of 1683 3- and 5-year-old children participating in the Child Health Monitoring Development project (LATE-project) conducted in 2007-2009 in Finland. Children were measured at health check-ups and information on child's age when entering childcare, the number of childcare places the child has had, current type of childcare (parental, informal, [group] family childcare, childcare centre) and the current amount of childcare (hours) were gathered. Parents' body mass indices, family educational level, family structure, maternal smoking during pregnancy and child's birth weight were treated as covariates.
Beginning childcare before age 1 (adjusted model: odds ratio [OR] 2.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41-4.52) and, for girls only, number of childcare places (adjusted model: OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), were associated with an increased risk of overweight. The current type of childcare or the time currently spent in childcare was not associated with overweight.
Beginning childcare before age 1, which is quite rare in Finland, and having attended several childcare places were associated with overweight even when adjusting for family socioeconomic status and other family background variables. The significance of these findings needs to be further studied.
To test the hypothesis that a high carbohydrate breakfast with breakfast cereal leads to a meaningful reduction in dietary energy intake from fat, especially from saturated fat, and thus lower serum cholesterol levels.
An open randomized controlled cross-over trial. The subjects were randomized into intervention breakfast cereal or usual breakfast (control) groups.
Free-living subjects aged 29-71 y in Eastern Finland
224 enrolled, 209 completed the study. The subjects were recruited from a survey of a random population sample and from other sources, and their serum cholesterol was not lower than 5.0 mmol/l. Recruited persons did not have any chronic disease or very low saturated fat intake.
The cereal group consumed 80 g (men) or 60 g (women) cereal at breakfast and the control group continued their usual dietary habits for six weeks. After a wash out of six weeks, a cross-over with another six week trial period took place. Measurements (including serum samples and a 3 d food record) took place before and after the two trial periods.
The intervention period led to 2.5 en% (energy percent units) reduction in saturated fatty acids intake. The reduction in total fat intake was 5.5 en%. This was compensated for by increased intake of carbohydrates. The reduction in saturated fatty acids intake led to modest (but in group 1 significant) 0.15 mmol/l (2.5%) reduction in total serum cholesterol level.
The trial showed that regular cereal breakfast can lead to reduced intake of total and saturated fatty acids of the daily diet and consequently to reduction in serum cholesterol level.
The paper reviews Finnish research on meals and meal patterns since the turn of the century. The main research traditions and cases representing various methodological approaches-qualitative interview, health behaviour questionnaire and dietary survey-are discussed. In line with studies undertaken in other industrialized countries, the Finnish studies show that meal patterns are related to socio-economic structure, work schedules, lifecourse, living conditions and food availability. Meal patterns vary by individual energy needs, and the nutrient contents of meals can be different from those of snacks. It is difficult to account for all determinants and characteristics of meals in a single study. The three cases shed light on the various aspects of the meal. When planning an empirical study on meals the researcher should ask herself/himself at least four questions: (1) who defines the meal?; (2) are meal patterns assumed to vary by time and between subgroups of the study population?; (3) is information on nutrient content of various eating occasions relevant to the study?; and (4) could information on meals be obtained from existing data sources?
This study examines social structural and family status factors as determinants of food behaviour. The data were derived from the FINMONICA Risk Factor Survey, collected in Finland in spring 1992. A multidimensional framework of the determinants of food behaviour was used, including social structural position, family status and gender. The associations between the determinants of food behaviour were estimated by multivariate logistic regression models, adjusted for age and regional differences. Food behaviour was measured by an index including six food items which were chosen based on Finnish dietary guidelines. In general, women's food behaviour was more in accordance with the dietary guidelines than that of men. The pattern of association between educational level and food behaviour was similar for both genders, but slightly stronger for men than women. Employment status was associated only with women's food behaviour, but the tendency was the same for men. Marital status was associated with men's as well as women's food behaviour. The food behaviour of married men and women was more in line with the dietary guidelines than the food behaviour of those who had been previously married. Parental status, however, was only associated with women's food behaviour, that is, the food behaviour of women with young children was more closely in line with the dietary guidelines than that of the rest of the women.