The magnitude of the problems faced by Canadian society as a result of an aging population has been identified. Perhaps the most important concern related to this greying of Canada is the increasing incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Therapeutic options for these disorders have been limited to date. Advances in biotechnology and molecular biology will offer novel approaches to treatment. These and the expansion of more traditional therapeutic avenues require guidelines with the aim of optimizing their development.
This article deals with the short-term results of prosthetic replacement of the hip joint. The investigation was carried out three years after the introduction of a new hip prosthesis - the ITH (" International Total Hip") prosthesis. Our results were analysed retrospectively, the primary goal being quality assessment of the results of our hip surgery. We found that the results of hip prosthetic surgery with the ITH-prosthesis were satisfying, although the frequency of complications was rather high: 185 implantations of the ITH-prosthesis gave 13 cases of deep venous thrombosis; one case of deep infection and subsequent revision surgery; four cases of dislocation of the prosthesis, of which two cases have been subsequently revised; one case of perforation of the femur with later revision; and one case of permanent paralysis of the femoral nerve. The overall rate of revisions was 2.7%. The overall survival of the prosthesis according to Kaplan Meier was 97% after three years.
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of risperidone in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who are experiencing significant dopamine-induced psychosis.
Seventeen patients (median age, 72 yrs) participated in this 12-week, open pilot study receiving 0.5 to 3 mg oral risperidone per day. Maintenance antiparkinsonian medication was continued throughout, although psychotropic medication was discontinued. EFFICACY RESULTS: Risperidone produced a substantial improvement in psychotic symptoms, shown on the mean total positive subscale score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) by a 30% improvement (-3.1 decrease) after 1 week and a 66% improvement (-6.8 decrease) at end point. This improvement was most evident in the items delusions, hallucinatory behavior, and suspiciousness/persecution. Risperidone also achieved significant improvement from baseline in Clinical Global Impression (CGI)-severity and CGI-improvement (p
Clinical studies have shown that patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) who are treated with rivastigmine have statistically significantly better scores on 5 scales used to assess AD than control patients receiving placebo. However, the clinical meaning and cost implications of these differences are not clear.
The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical meaning and cost implications of statistically significant results obtained in clinical trials of rivastigmine for the treatment of AD. Potential cost implications for the health care system, caregivers, and society are considered.
Data on clinical effects of rivastigmine were obtained from published North American and European clinical studies of patients with mild to moderately severe AD receiving rivastigmine 6 to 12 mg/d (n = 828) or placebo (n = 647). Differences in scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Function, Clinician's Interview-Based Impression of Change with both clinical and caregiver information considered, Progressive Deterioration Scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Global Deterioration Scale were assessed. A convenience panel of 9 Canadian specialists experienced in the treatment of AD provided their opinions on the clinical importance of the trial results. Chart review was performed to identify specific behaviors that improved, and cost implications of improvements were assessed.
The panel determined that statistically significant differences in scores on all scales except the MMSE were likely associated with functional or cognitive differences that were clinically relevant for patients, reflecting stabilization that would have beneficial consequences for caregivers and health care resource use. Subsequent chart review showed that improvement on specific scale items confirmed the physician panel's opinion. Analysis of possible cost implications to society indicated that medication expenditures would be offset largely by delays in the need for paid home care and institutionalization, positive effects on caregiver health, and less time lost from work for the caregiver.
From the perspective of a Canadian specialist panel, rivastigmine treatment for AD produces clinically relevant effects for patients that are beneficial to caregivers. These effects suggest decreased use of caregiver resources and delays in the need for institutionalization, both of which reduce societal costs.