The aim of this study was to examine the fear of hypoglycaemia and its association with demographic and disease-specific variables in a large and unselective population of adult patients with Type 1 diabetes.
Questionnaires were sent by post to all patients with Type 1 diabetes who were identified in the local diabetes registries of two hospitals in Stockholm, Sweden (n=1387). Fear of hypoglycaemia was measured using the Swedish Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey, the Worry subscale and the Aloneness subscale. Demographic variables and disease-specific factors were collected from patients' self reports and medical records. Univariate analysis and multiple stepwise linear regression analysis were used in the statistical analyses of the data.
Seven hundred and sixty-four (55%) patients participated in the study (mean age 43.3 years and mean HbA(1c) 7.0%, normal
To determine the global extent of hypoglycaemia experienced by patients with diabetes using insulin, as there is a lack of data on the prevalence of hypoglycaemia in developed and developing countries.
This non-interventional, multicentre, 6-month retrospective and 4-week prospective study using self-assessment questionnaire and patient diaries included 27 585 patients, aged =18?years, with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n?=?8022) or type 2 diabetes (T2D; n?=?19 563) treated with insulin for >12?months, at 2004 sites in 24 countries worldwide. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients experiencing at least one hypoglycaemic event during the observational period.
During the prospective period, 83.0% of patients with T1D and 46.5% of patients with T2D reported hypoglycaemia. Rates of any, nocturnal and severe hypoglycaemia were 73.3 [95% confidence interval (CI) 72.6-74.0], 11.3 (95% CI 11.0-11.6) and 4.9 (95% CI 4.7-5.1) events/patient-year for T1D and 19.3 (95% CI 19.1-19.6), 3.7 (95% CI 3.6-3.8) and 2.5 events/patient-year (95% CI 2.4-2.5) for T2D, respectively. The highest rates of any hypoglycaemia were observed in Latin America for T1D and Russia for T2D. Glycated haemoglobin level was not a significant predictor of hypoglycaemia.
We report hypoglycaemia rates in a global population, including those in countries without previous data. Overall hypoglycaemia rates were high, with large variations between geographical regions. Further investigation into these differences may help to optimize therapy and reduce the risk of hypoglycaemia.