A total of 1920 schoolchildren of both sexes were examined at 12 to 13 years of age, with a follow-up of 242 children showing elevated BP and a random normotensive sample of 230. A set of features was identified that showed the greatest predictive value with respect to mean BP at five years' follow-up: baseline BP, the Katle index, the magnitude of the S wave and heart rate. A study of possible approaches to the prevention of atherosclerotic precursors in eleven-year-olds has been launched, with the action on certain risk factors, such as limited physical activity, elevated BP, smoking, excessive body weight lipid disorders (in boys only).
In a longitudinal cohort (prevention group, n=213, comparison group, n=163) of 10-year prospective follow-up we addressed efficacy of 5-year-long multifactor preventive intervention, conducted in a sample of population of 12 year old boys. Preventive intervention was carried out both at populational level and among persons with risk factors of development of cardiovascular diseases with the use of group, individual, and partly family approaches, and was directed at rationalization of nutrition, elevation of physical activity and prevention of harmful habits. During first 3 years of prevention we succeeded to achieve stable statistically significant lowering of mean levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and atherogeneity index, as well as to affect fatty component of body mass (skinfold thickness). Long term effect of 5-year long preventive intervention manifested as significantly lower level of systolic blood pressure, lower prevalence of low levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, smaller increment of low density lipoprotein cholesterol and index of atherogeneity in the prevention group. These results evidence that prevention of main factors of risk of development of cardiovascular diseases (obesity, arterial hypertension, disorders of lipid composition of the blood, and low physical activity) in child and adolescent age in the period of active growth and development is feasible, effective, safe and is able to lead to decrease of levels of these factors in adults, but should last uninterruptedly until formation of stable habits of healthy life style.
Positive correlation between age, leading risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) has been shown in numerous studies. Contingent of the present work was a part of long term cohort study initiated in 1983. We included in analysis data from 233 men in 120 of whom we measured IMT of right and left common carotid arteries. Other examinations included use of standard questionnaire for detection of CVD risk factors, measurement of blood serum lipid and glucose levels, arterial pressure, pulse, body mass and length, waist and hip circumferences (WC, HC), skin fold thicknesses on triceps, abdomen and forearm. We found that carotid artery IMT was related to hereditary load by CVD along paternal line. Substantial influence on the realization of unfavorable inheritance exerted level of systolic arterial pressure. Difference in magnitude of carotid artery IMT between groups of men with normal body mass and obesity were conditioned by variations in severity of abdominal obesity (WC/HC). IMT of carotid arteries in men directly depended on magnitude of their abdominal obesity and age.