OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence rate of major depression in the Danish general population by using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), a validated self-rating scale fulfilling the symptomatic criteria in DSM-IV and ICD-10 for a depressive episode. METHOD: A booklet containing the MDI and a number of questions on psychosocial factors was sent to 2040 randomly selected Danish citizens. The sample was age- and gender-stratified. Mean MDI scores were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used in order to produce a model for the influence of psychosocial factors. RESULTS: The response rate was 60%. The point prevalence of major depression was 3.3%. Among the tested predictors of depression were sociodemographic variables, alcohol and smoking habit, bodily pain, somatic diseases and traumatic life events. For a traumatic event in personal life over the past year odds ratio was 6.4 [2.7; 15.5], for overconsumption of alcohol odds ratio was 3.2 [1.5; 6.8]. While the gender difference in major depression rate was not found statistically significant, a significant (P
Objective: To present data on mental distress in the Danish general population using recently validated Hopkins symptom checklist (SCL) subscales and compare with data from other countries. To evaluate associations between mental distress and biopsychosocial factors. Method: Questionnaires were sent to a gender- and age-stratified random sample comprising 2040 Danes. Mean SCL subscale scores were calculated. Cases were defined in accordance with the traditional criteria, and Danish and US raw score cut-offs were compared. A multiple regression model was developed to describe associations between biopsychosocial factors and SCL scores. Results: The response rate was 58%. The Danish mean scores were significantly higher than reported for a US non-patient sample, and Danish raw score cut-offs for caseness were higher. The Danish scores were closer to Nordic mean scores. Age, gender, social status, somatic disorder and traumatic life events in the past year in work life as well as personal life were significantly associated with the level of mental distress. SCL scores were compared with scores on the Major Depression Inventory. Conclusion: The SCL mean scores of the Danish general population were relatively high, but similar to data from the Nordic countries. Consequently, interpretation of the Danish SCL requires Danish norms and Danish cut-off scores for caseness.
To assess the association of fertility treatment and subfertility with offspring intelligence, attention, and executive functions in 5-year-old singletons.
A cohort of 1782 children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort.
The children were tested with a neuropsychological battery at age five. In addition to tests of intelligence, attention and executive functions, the follow up included extensive information on important covariates. The analyses were conducted using multiple linear regression and adjusted for parental educational level, maternal intelligence, age, parity, body mass index, smoking in pregnancy, alcohol consumption in pregnancy and child gender, child age, and examiner.
Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised, the Test of Everyday Attention for Children at Five, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functions scores.
A consistent pattern of nonsignificantly lower scores were only observed for intelligence and executive functions in children born after fertility treatment or by subfertile parents when the results were unadjusted for maternal intelligence and parental educational level. When adjusted for these and other covariates, there were no significant mean differences in intelligence (mean difference -2.8, 95% CI -7.8, 2.2), overall attention (-0.1, 95% CI -0.6, 0.3), or parent-rated executive functions (-0.1, 95% CI -3.0, 2.9) between children born after spontaneous conception and children born to parents conceiving after fertility treatment. Similarly, there were no significant mean differences in intelligence (mean difference 0.6, 95% CI -2.2, 3.4), overall attention (0.1, 95% CI -0.2, 0.4), or parent-rated executive functions (1.0, 95% CI -1.8, 3.7) between children born after spontaneous conception and children born to subfertile parents waiting more than 12 months before conceiving naturally.
This study suggests that parental subfertility and fertility treatment are unrelated to offspring intelligence, attention and executive functions.
A Danish translation of the Cattell's 16PF has been used in studies evaluating the effects of prenatal drug exposure. This paper reports a psychometric analysis of the 16PF and Eysenck's EPQ based on a sample of 558 young Danes. Many 16PF scales had unacceptable psychometric properties (as indicated by coefficient alpha and item--total score correlations), but more satisfactory results were obtained with the EPQ N and E scales. A factor analysis of all 16PF and EPQ scales suggested a six factor solution that roughly corresponds to the second-order factor structure obtained by Krug and Johns (1986). It is concluded that the second-order factor structure should be the basis of interpretation of the 16PF in both practical and research contexts.
AIM: To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcome at age 5 y of age in a cohort of preterm children treated mainly with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the neonatal period. METHODS: A national prospective observational study was conducted in Denmark which included all 269 surviving children with a birthweight below 1000 g or a gestational age below 28 wk born in Denmark in between 1994 and 1995. A total of 164 children (61%) had been treated with nasal CPAP only in the neonatal period. A reference group (n = 76) of term children was studied in parallel. RESULTS: Of the 269 surviving children, 252 (94%) were examined. Twenty-four children (10%) had cerebral palsy, and three children were blind. No case of hearing impairment was detected. Nineteen percent of the index children had an IQ score
BACKGROUND: Findings from a recent series of Danish studies suggest that moderate wine drinkers are healthier than those who drink other alcoholic beverages or those who abstain. OBJECTIVE: To identify possible explanatory factors associated with the health benefits of wine consumption through the examination of a wide spectrum of social, cognitive, and personality characteristics related to both beverage choice and health in young Danish adults. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of characteristics associated with beverage choice in a sample of 363 men and 330 women between the ages of 29 and 34 years, selected from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort on the basis of perinatal records. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Socioeconomic status, education, IQ, personality, psychiatric symptoms, and health-related behaviors, including alcohol consumption, were analyzed. The outcome variables were subjected to linear and logistic regression analyses with 2 factors (beer and wine), each with 2 levels (drinking or not drinking a certain beverage type). RESULTS: Wine drinking was significantly associated with higher IQ, higher parental educational level, and higher socioeconomic status. Beer drinking was significantly associated with lower scores on the same variables. On scales concerning personality, psychiatric symptoms, and health-related behaviors, wine drinking was associated with optimal functioning and beer drinking with suboptimal functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that wine drinking is a general indicator of optimal social, cognitive, and personality development in Denmark. Similar social, cognitive, and personality factors have also been associated with better health in many populations. Consequently, the association between drinking habits and social and psychological characteristics, in large part, may explain the apparent health benefits of wine.
Comment In: Arch Intern Med. 2002 Feb 11;162(3):364-511822941
A total of 178 Danish male remand prisoners were examined using comprehensive interviews and questionnaires on psychopathological, personality and social measures, and file data. These data were compared with scores on the Hare Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R). Subjects were divided into four groups according to quartile PCL-R scores. In general there were high rates of psychiatric morbidity in all PCL-R quartile groups. The medium-high scorers represent a more vulnerable group with a high prevalence of dependence disorders, relatively high neuroticism score and relatively high prevalence of neurotic and stress-related disorders. The high scorers were more psychosocially maladjusted, had more often made previous suicidal attempts, and had a higher psychoticism score. Chronic psychotic disorders did occur, mostly in the high-scoring group. The population had lower scores on the PCL-R than in most previous studies, suggesting a lower prevalence of psychopathic features among Danish criminals and possibly a lower cut-off point when using the PCL-R as a categorical measure. Both findings are consistent with the results of other European studies. Further studies on cross-cultural differences with regard to PCL-R psychopathic features and on psychic vulnerability related to PCL-R scores and factor 1/factor 2 of the PCL-R are suggested.
OBJECTIVE--To test whether exposure to phenobarbital in utero is associated with deficits in intelligence scores in adult men and whether the magnitude of the postnatal effect is mediated by exposure parameters and/or postnatal environmental factors. DESIGN--Two double-blind studies were conducted on independent samples of adult men prenatally exposed to phenobarbital and matched control samples using different measures of general intelligence. Based on data from control subjects, regression models were built relating intelligence scores to relevant pre-exposure matching variables and age at testing. Models generated predicted scores for each exposed subject. Group mean differences between the individually predicted and observed scores estimated exposure effects. SETTING--Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS--Exposed subjects were adult men born at the largest hospital in Copenhagen between 1959 and 1961 who were exposed to phenobarbital during gestation via maternal medical treatment and whose mothers had no history of a central nervous system disorder and no treatment during pregnancy with any other psychopharmacological drug. Study 1 included 33 men and study 2, 81 men. Controls were unexposed members of the same birth cohort matched on a wide spectrum of maternal variables recorded prenatally and perinatally. Controls for studies 1 and 2 included 52 and 101 men, respectively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--In study 1: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (Danish version); in study 2: Danish Military Draft Board Intelligence Test (Børge Priens Prøve). RESULT--Men exposed prenatally to phenobarbital had significantly lower verbal intelligence scores (approximately 0.5 SD) than predicted. Lower socioeconomic status and being the offspring of an "unwanted" pregnancy increased the magnitude of the negative effects. Exposure that included the last trimester was the most detrimental. CONCLUSION--Phenobarbital exposure during early development can have long-term deleterious effects on cognitive performance. Detrimental environmental conditions can interact with prenatal biological insult to magnify negative outcomes. Physicians are urged to use increased caution in prescribing such medications during pregnancy.
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study whether early weaning from breastfeeding may be associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. METHOD: The current sample comprises 6841 individuals from the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort of whom 1671 (24%) had been breastfed for 2 weeks or less (early weaning) and 5170 (76%) had been breastfed longer. Maternal schizophrenia, parental social status, single mother status and gender were included as covariates in a multiple regression analysis of the effect of early weaning on the risk of hospitalization with schizophrenia. RESULTS: The sample comprised 93 cases of schizophrenia (1.4%). Maternal schizophrenia was the strongest risk factor and a significant association between single mother status and elevated offspring risk of schizophrenia was also observed. Early weaning was significantly related to later schizophrenia in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses (adjusted odds ratio 1.73 with 95% CI: 1.13-2.67). CONCLUSION: No or