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Metabolism and dosimetry of actinide elements in occupationally-exposed personnel of Russia and the United States: a summary progress report.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature198212
Source
Health Phys. 2000 Jul;79(1):63-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2000
Author
V F Khokhryakov
K G Suslova
R E Filipy
J R Alldredge
E E Aladova
S E Glover
V V Vostrotin
Author Affiliation
Branch No. 1, Federal Research Center Institute of Biophysics, Ozersk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia.
Source
Health Phys. 2000 Jul;79(1):63-71
Date
Jul-2000
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aerosols
Americium - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Occupational Exposure
Plutonium - pharmacokinetics
Radiometry
Registries
Respiratory System - metabolism
Russia
United States
Abstract
The United States Transuranium and Uranium Registries (USTUR) and the Dosimetry Registry of the Mayak Industrial Association (DRMIA) have been independently collecting tissues at autopsy of plutonium workers in their respective countries for nearly 30 y. The tissues are analyzed radiochemically and the analytical data are used to develop, modify, or refine biokinetic models that describe the depositions and translocations of plutonium and transplutonium elements in the human body. The purpose of this collaborative research project is to combine the unique information on humans, gathered by the two Registries, into a joint database and perform analyses of the data. A series of project tasks are directly concerned with dosimetry in Mayak workers and involve biokinetic modeling for actinide elements. Transportability coefficients derived from in-vitro solubility measurements of actinide-containing aerosols (as measured by the DRMIA) were related to specific workplaces within Mayak facilities. The transportability coefficients of inhaled aerosols significantly affected the translocation rates of plutonium from the respiratory tract to the systemic circulation. Parameters for a simplified lung model, used by Branch No. 1, Federal Research Center Institute of Biophysics (FIB-1) and the Mayak Production Association for dose assessment at long times after inhalation of plutonium-containing aerosols, were developed on the basis of joint USTUR and DRMIA data. This model has separate sets of deposition and transfer parameters for three aerosol transportability groups, allowing work histories of the workers to be considered in the dose-assessment process. FIB-1 biokinetic models were extended to include the distributions of actinide elements in systemic organs of workers, and a relationship between the health of individual workers and plutonium distribution in tissues was determined. Workers who suffered from liver diseases generally had a smaller fraction of systemic plutonium in the liver at death and a larger fraction in the skeleton than did relatively healthy workers. Also, the fraction of total systemic plutonium excreted per day was significantly greater for workers with liver diseases than for relatively healthy workers. These observations could have a considerable effect on organ dosimetry in health-impaired workers whose dose assessments were based solely on urinary excretion rates. A comparison of this model to other biokinetic models, such as those published by the International Commission for Radiological Protection, is currently underway as is the documentation of uncertainty estimates associated with the model.
PubMed ID
10855779 View in PubMed
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