When clinical guidelines affect large numbers of individuals or substantial resources, it is important to understand their benefits, harms and costs from a population perspective. Many countries' dyslipidemia guidelines include these perspectives.
To compare the effectiveness and efficiency of the 2003 and 2006 Canadian dyslipidemia guidelines for statin treatment in reducing deaths from coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Canadian population.
The 2003 and 2006 Canadian dyslipidemia guidelines were applied to data from the Canadian Heart Health Survey (weighted sample of 12,300,000 people), which includes information on family history and physical measurements, including fasting lipid profiles. The number of people recommended for statin treatment, the potential number of CAD deaths avoided and the number needed to treat to avoid one CAD death with five years of statin therapy were determined for each guideline.
Compared with the 2003 guidelines, 1.4% fewer people (20 to 74 years of age) are recommended statin treatment, potentially preventing 7% more CAD deaths. The number needed to treat to prevent one CAD death over five years decreased from 172 (2003 guideline) to 147 (2006 guideline).
From a population perspective, the 2006 Canadian dyslipidemia recommendations are an improvement of earlier versions, preventing more CAD events and deaths with fewer statin prescriptions. Despite these improvements, the Canadian dyslipidemia recommendations should explicitly address issues of absolute benefit and cost-effectiveness in future revisions.
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Comment In: Can J Cardiol. 2008 Aug;24(8):62118697284
Groll and Thomson's evaluation of the effectiveness of Ontario's Universal Influenza Immunization Campaign used per capita cases of laboratory-confirmed influenza. We argue that these data are susceptible to various biases and should not be used as an outcome measure. Laboratory data are traditionally used to identify the presence of influenza activity rather than to identify levels of influenza activity. A better measure of viral activity is the proportion of influenza tests positive; whereas the weekly proportion of tests positive was relatively consistent, a marked increase over time in the numbers of laboratory-confirmed cases paralleled an increase in the number of tests performed. Regardless, for evaluating universal influenza immunization program effectiveness, other established and available measures employed in previous studies describing the epidemiology of influenza should be used instead of laboratory data.
Comment On: Vaccine. 2006 Jun 12;24(24):5245-5016624458
Health administrative data is increasingly being used for chronic disease surveillance. This study explored agreement between administrative and survey data for ascertainment of seven key chronic diseases, using individually linked data from a large population of individuals in Ontario, Canada.
All adults who completed any one of three cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey (2001, 2003 or 2005) and agreed to have their responses linked to provincial health administrative data were included. The sample population included 85,549 persons. Previously validated case definitions for myocardial infarction, asthma, diabetes, chronic lung disease, stroke, hypertension and congestive heart failure based on hospital and physician billing codes were used to identify cases in health administrative data and these were compared with self-report of each disease from the survey. Concordance was measured using the Kappa statistic, percent positive and negative agreement and prevalence estimates.
Agreement using the Kappa statistic was good or very good (kappa range: 0.66-0.80) for diabetes and hypertension, moderate for myocardial infarction and asthma and poor or fair (kappa range: 0.29-0.36) for stroke, congestive heart failure and COPD. Prevalence was higher in health administrative data for all diseases except stroke and myocardial infarction. Health Utilities Index scores were higher for cases identified by health administrative data compared with self-reported data for some chronic diseases (acute myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure), suggesting that administrative data may pick up less severe cases.
In the general population, discordance between self-report and administrative data was large for many chronic diseases, particularly disease with low prevalence, and differences were not easily explained by individual and disease characteristics.
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ICES uOttawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ; Department of Epidemiology and Community Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
We investigated the association between a child's birth order and emergency room (ER) visits and hospital admissions following 2-,4-,6- and 12-month pediatric vaccinations.
We included all children born in Ontario between April 1(st), 2006 and March 31(st), 2009 who received a qualifying vaccination. We identified vaccinations, ER visits and admissions using health administrative data housed at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. We used the self-controlled case series design to compare the relative incidence (RI) of events among 1(st)-born and later-born children using relative incidence ratios (RIR).
For the 2-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns versus later-born children was 1.37 (95% CI: 1.19-1.57), which translates to 112 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. For the 4-month vaccination, the RIR for 1(st)-borns vs. later-borns was 1.70 (95% CI: 1.45-1.99), representing 157 additional events/100,000 vaccinated. At 6 months, the RIR for 1(st) vs. later-borns was 1.27 (95% CI: 1.09-1.48), or 77 excess events/100,000 vaccinated. At the 12-month vaccination, the RIR was 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02-1.21), or 249 excess events/100,000 vaccinated.
Birth order is associated with increased incidence of ER visits and hospitalizations following vaccination in infancy. 1(st)-born children had significantly higher relative incidence of events compared to later-born children.
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To examine neighbourhood income differences in deaths amenable to medical care and public health over a 25-year period after the establishment of universal insurance for doctors and hospital services in Canada.
Data for census metropolitan areas were obtained from the Canadian Mortality Database and population censuses for the years 1971, 1986, 1991 and 1996. Deaths amenable to medical care, amenable to public health, from ischaemic heart disease and from other causes were considered. Data on deaths were grouped into neighbourhood income quintiles on the basis of the census tract percentage of population below Canada's low-income cut-offs.
From 1971 to 1996, differences between the richest and poorest quintiles in age-standardised expected years of life lost amenable to medical care decreased 60% (p
This report updates the death estimates for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Canada and introduces a population-based perspective on disease prevalence and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) burden.
The Canadian Mortality Database was used to estimate the mortality of men and women in different age groups for the 139 Canadian health regions from 1950 to 1999. Heart disease prevalence and its impact on HRQOL were estimated using the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). Life table techniques were used to estimate the impact of heart disease on life and health expectancy.
Although CVD remains the leading cause of death in Canada, between 1950 and 1999 the death rates from CVD dropped from 702 per 100,000 to 288 per 100,000 men, and from 562 per 100,000 to 175 per 100,000 women. Results from the CCHS indicated that 5.4% of men and 4.6% of women reported having heart disease as diagnosed by a medical professional. Of these individuals, 14% of men and 21% of women reported difficulty ambulating - about six times more than people without heart disease. In total, 4.5 years of life expectancy and 2.8 years of health expectancy were lost due to CVD. The study also found large differences in the burden of CVD among men and women and across the 139 Canadian health regions.
CVD is a major disease burden in terms of both mortality and HRQOL and is an important source of health inequalities between populations in Canada. Any attempt to improve the health of Canadians or to reduce health inequalities should include interventions to reduce CVD mortality and morbidity. Given the present impact of CVD on HRQOL, reducing or eliminating heart disease may potentially result in an increase in life expectancy that will be larger than the gains in health expectancy.
To comprehensively examine the cardiovascular health of Canadians, we developed the Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team (CANHEART) health index. We analyzed trends in health behaviours and factors to monitor the cardiovascular health of the Canadian population.
We used data from the Canadian Community Health Survey (2003-2011 [excluding 2005]; response rates 70%-81%) to examine trends in the prevalence of 6 cardiovascular health factors and behaviours (smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption, overweight/obesity, diabetes and hypertension) among Canadian adults aged 20 or older. We defined ideal criteria for each of the 6 health metrics. The number of ideal metrics was summed to create the CANHEART health index; values range from 0 (worst) to 6 (best or ideal). A separate CANHEART index was developed for youth age 12-19 years; this index included 4 health factors and behaviours (smoking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable consumption and overweight/obesity). We determined the prevalence of ideal cardiovascular health and the mean CANHEART health index score, stratified by age, sex and province.
During the study period, physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption increased and smoking decreased among Canadian adults. The prevalence of overweight/obesity, hypertension and diabetes increased. In 2009-2010, 9.4% of Canadian adults were in ideal cardiovascular health, 53.3% were in intermediate health (4-5 healthy factors or behaviours), and 37.3% were in poor cardiovascular health (0-3 healthy factors or behaviours). Twice as many women as men were in ideal cardiovascular health (12.8% vs. 6.1%). Among youth, the prevalence of smoking decreased and the prevalence of overweight/obesity increased. In 2009-2010, 16.6% of Canadian youth were in ideal cardiovascular health, 33.7% were in intermediate health (3 healthy factors or behaviours), and 49.7% were in poor cardiovascular health (0-2 healthy factors or behaviours).
Fewer than 1 in 10 Canadian adults and 1 in 5 Canadian youth were in ideal cardiovascular health from 2003 to 2011. Intensive health promotion activities are needed to meet the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada's goal of improving the cardiovascular health of Canadians by 10% by 2020 as measured by the CANHEART health index.
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There is growing evidence that cardiovascular risk profiles differ markedly across Canada's 4 major ethnic groups, namely White, South Asian, Chinese, and Black; however, the impact of long-term Canadian residency on cardiovascular risk within and across these ethnic groups is unknown.
Using pooled data from Statistics Canada's National Population and Canadian Community Health Surveys (1996-2007), we compared the age- and sex-standardized prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and diseases between recent immigrants (