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EXPOSURE OF ALASKA BROWN BEARS ( URSUS ARCTOS) TO BACTERIAL, VIRAL, AND PARASITIC AGENTS VARIES SPATIOTEMPORALLY AND MAY BE INFLUENCED BY AGE.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296786
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 Dec 17; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Dec-17-2018
Author
Andrew M Ramey
Christopher A Cleveland
Grant V Hilderbrand
Kyle Joly
David D Gustine
Buck Mangipane
William B Leacock
Anthony P Crupi
Dolores E Hill
Jitender P Dubey
Michael J Yabsley
Author Affiliation
1 ? US Geological Survey, Alaska Science Center, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508, USA.
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2018 Dec 17; :
Date
Dec-17-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
We collected blood and serum from 155 brown bears ( Ursus arctos) inhabiting five locations in Alaska during 2013-16 and tested samples for evidence of prior exposure to a suite of bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents. Antibody seroprevalence among Alaska brown bears was estimated to be 15% for Brucella spp., 10% for Francisella tularensis, 7% for Leptospira spp., 18% for canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), 5% for canine distemper virus (CDV), 5% for canine parvovirus, 5% for influenza A virus (IAV), and 44% for Toxoplasma gondii. No samples were seropositive for antibodies to Trichinella spp. Point estimates of prior exposure to pathogens among brown bears at previously unsampled locations generally fell within the range of estimates for previously or contemporaneously sampled bears in Alaska. Statistical support was found for variation in antibody seroprevalence among bears by location or age cohort for CAV-1, CDV, IAV, and Toxoplasma gondii. There was limited concordance in comparisons between our results and previous serosurveys regarding spatial and age-related trends in antibody seroprevalence among Alaska brown bears suggestive of temporal variation. However, we found evidence that the seroprevalence of CAV-1 antibodies is consistently high in bears inhabiting SW Alaska and the cumulative probability of exposure may increase with age. We found evidence for seroconversion or seroreversion to six different infectious agents in one or more bears. Results of this study increase our collective understanding of disease risk to both Alaska brown bear populations and humans that utilize this resource.
PubMed ID
30557123 View in PubMed
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Toxoplasma gondii as a Parasite in Food: Analysis and Control.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature276911
Source
Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Aug;4(4)
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2016
Author
Dolores E Hill
Jitender P Dubey
Source
Microbiol Spectr. 2016 Aug;4(4)
Date
Aug-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Foodborne infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and foodborne parasitic diseases, though not as widespread as bacterial and viral infections, are common on all continents and in most ecosystems, including arctic, temperate, and tropical regions. Outbreaks of disease resulting from foodstuffs contaminated by parasitic protozoa have become increasingly recognized as a problem in the United States and globally. Increased international trade in food products has made movement of these organisms across national boundaries more frequent, and the risks associated with infections have become apparent in nations with well-developed food safety apparatus in place.
PubMed ID
27726776 View in PubMed
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