Childhood immunization is an important component of preventive health care for young children. Successful control of vaccine-preventable diseases depends on high levels of immunization coverage. Immunization statistics show that on-reserve First Nations (Native Indian) children have lower vaccination coverage than children in the general Canadian population. There has been little research, however, conducted with First Nations populations on this topic.
This study explored First Nations parents' beliefs about childhood immunizations and examined factors influencing immunization uptake.
This study used a qualitative descriptive design to explore the issue of childhood immunization uptake. Twenty-eight mothers from two First Nations communities in north-western Ontario, Canada, were interviewed about their perceptions of childhood immunizations and vaccine-preventable diseases. The interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to examine the data.
Data analysis revealed the following six themes: (1) the fear of disease; (2) the efficacy of immunizations; (3) the immunization experience; (4) the consequences of immunization; (5) interactions with health professionals; and (6) barriers to immunizations. Participants were motivated to seek immunizations for their children by a fear of vaccine preventable diseases. A small proportion of mothers, however, questioned the effectiveness of vaccines in preventing disease. Traumatic immunization experiences, vaccine side-effects and sequelae, negative interactions with health professionals, and barriers such as time constraints and childhood illnesses all served as deterrents to immunization.
The research outcomes highlight the varied beliefs of First Nations parents about childhood immunizations and the numerous factors that both positively and negatively influence immunization uptake. Further research is needed to explore the issue of childhood immunizations in First Nations communities and to determine strategies to improve uptake.
Recently, several Canadian professional nursing associations have highlighted the expectations that community health nurses (CHNs) should address the social determinants of health and promote social justice and equity. These developments have important implications for (pre-licensure) CHN clinical education. This article reports the findings of a qualitative descriptive study that explored how baccalaureate nursing programs in Canada address the development of competencies related to social justice, equity, and the social determinants of health in their community health clinical courses. Focus group interviews were held with community health clinical course leaders in selected Canadian baccalaureate nursing programs. The findings foster understanding of key enablers and challenges when providing students with clinical opportunities to develop the CHN role related to social injustice, inequity, and the social determinants of health. The findings may also have implications for nursing programs internationally that are addressing these concepts in their community health clinical courses.
This paper presents the findings of a survey of community health clinical education in twenty-four Canadian pre-licensure baccalaureate nursing programs. A qualitative research design was used, involving a content analysis of Canadian course syllabi and supporting documents for community health courses. This study afforded a cross-sectional understanding of the "state of the art" of community health clinical education in Canadian schools of nursing. Clinical course conceptual approaches, course objectives, types of clinical sites, format and number of clinical hours, and methods of student evaluation are identified. The findings suggest the need for a national dialogue or consensus building exercise regarding curriculum content for community health nursing. Informing this dialogue are several strengths including the current focus on community health (as opposed to community-based) nursing education, and a solid socio-environmental perspective informing clinical learning and practice. The national data set generated by this study may have relevance to nursing programs globally.
The article focuses on a component of a three-year institutional ethnography regarding the construction of cultural diversity in clinical education. Students in two Canadian schools of nursing described being a nursing student as bounded by unwritten and largely invisible expectations of homogeneity in the context of a predominant discourse of equality and cultural sensitivity. At the same time, they witnessed many incidents, both personally and those directed toward other individuals of the same culture, of clinical teachers problematizing difference and centering on difference as less than the expected norm. This complex and often contradictory experience of difference and homogeneity contributed to their construction of cultural diversity as a problem. The authors provide examples of how the perception of being different affected some students' learning in the clinical setting and their interactions with clinical teachers. They will illustrate that this occurred in the context of macro influences that shaped how both teachers and students experienced and perceived cultural diversity. The article concludes with a challenge to nurse educators to deconstruct their beliefs and assumptions about inclusivity in nursing education.
In this article, the authors explore the home care experience as described by older physically impaired individuals and their caregiving spouses. Separate face-to-face semistructured interviews were carried out with each spouse from nine couples. Analysis of the interview data revealed four themes. For care receivers the themes were Independence and Developing a Trusting Relationship With Home Care Workers. Relief and Continuity were voiced by the caregiving spouses. The authors show how these themes relate to the participants' sense of security, which emerged as a key underlying concept in the home care experience. This study adds to the home care and caregiving literature as it expands our understanding of the relationship between formal and informal caregiving, highlights issues and concerns older couples face as they receive home-based care, and includes both older spouse caregivers and their direct-care recipients.
Canada does not have enough aboriginal nurses and aboriginal nursing faculty. Consequently, there is an inadequate number of nurses to meet both on- and off-reserve and community health care staffing needs. In 2002, Health Canada asked the Canadian Association of University Schools of Nursing to facilitate a national task force that would examine aboriginal nursing in Canada. The task force engaged in an extensive literature review, conducted a national survey of nursing programs, and explored recruitment and retention strategies. In 2007, the association prepared an update on the current status. In this article, the authors review the progress made during the intervening five years in the recruitment, retention and education of aboriginal nursing students.
The Nursing Division of the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST) first included systems and patient safety as a priority in its institutional business and strategic plan in 2003. Three interrelated leading-edge, two-year projects (2004-2006) were launched: Best Practice, Mentorship and Patient Safety, with the intent that each project would enhance the others. This case study focuses on the work of the Patient Safety Project Team. The team developed a project framework and strategic plan, conducted a literature review and identified key concepts related to systems and patient safety. Strategies to integrate these concepts into the school's 15 nursing education programs are being implemented.
While it is widely accepted that adopting a systems perspective is important for understanding and addressing patient safety issues, nurse educators typically address these issues from the perspective of individual student performance. In this study, the authors explored unsafe patient care events recorded in 60 randomly selected clinical learning contracts initiated for students in years 2, 3, and 4 of the undergraduate nursing program at the University of Manitoba. The contracts had been drawn up for students whose nursing care did not meet clinical learning objectives and standards or whose performance was deemed unsafe. Using qualitative content analysis, the authors categorized data pertaining to 154 unsafe patient care events recorded in these contracts.Thirty-seven students precipitated these events. Most events were related to medication administration (56%) and skill application (20%). A breakdown of medication administration events showed that the highest number were errors related to time (33%) and dosage (24%). International students and male students were responsible for a higher number of events than their numbers in the sample would lead one to expect. The findings support further study related to patient safety and nursing education.