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Do pre-employment influences explain the association between psychosocial factors at work and coronary heart disease? The Whitehall II study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature148046
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2010 May;67(5):330-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Taina Hintsa
Martin J Shipley
David Gimeno
Marko Elovainio
Tarani Chandola
Markus Jokela
Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen
Jussi Vahtera
Michael G Marmot
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Department of Psychology, University of Helsinki, PO Box 9, Helsinki, FIN-00014, Finland. taina.hintsa@helsinkifigi
Source
Occup Environ Med. 2010 May;67(5):330-4
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Body Height
Coronary Disease - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Educational Status
Family Characteristics
Family Health
Finland - epidemiology
Great Britain - epidemiology
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - etiology - psychology
Occupational health - legislation & jurisprudence
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Stress, Psychological - psychology
United States - epidemiology
Workplace - psychology
Abstract
To examine whether the association between psychosocial factors at work and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) is explained by pre-employment factors, such as family history of CHD, education, paternal education and social class, number of siblings and height.
A prospective cohort study of 6435 British men aged 35-55 years at phase 1 (1985-1988) and free from prevalent CHD at phase 2 (1989-1990) was conducted. Psychosocial factors at work were assessed at phases 1 and 2 and mean scores across the two phases were used to determine long-term exposure. Selected pre-employment factors were assessed at phase 1. Follow-up for coronary death, first non-fatal myocardial infarction or definite angina between phase 2 and 1999 was based on clinical records (250 events, follow-up 8.7 years).
The selected pre-employment factors were associated with risk for CHD: HRs (95% CI) were 1.33 (1.03 to 1.73) for family history of CHD, 1.18 (1.05 to 1.32) for each quartile decrease in height and 1.16 (0.99 to 1.35) for each category increase in number of siblings. Psychosocial work factors also predicted CHD: 1.72 (1.08 to 2.74) for low job control and 1.72 (1.10 to 2.67) for low organisational justice. Adjustment for pre-employment factors changed these associations by 4.1% or less.
In this occupational cohort of British men, the association between psychosocial factors at work and CHD was largely independent of family history of CHD, education, paternal educational attainment and social class, number of siblings and height.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19819857 View in PubMed
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Do psychological attributes matter for adherence to antihypertensive medication? The Finnish Public Sector Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature154722
Source
J Hypertens. 2008 Nov;26(11):2236-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2008
Author
Hermann Nabi
Jussi Vahtera
Archana Singh-Manoux
Jaana Pentti
Tuula Oksanen
David Gimeno
Marko Elovainio
Marianna Virtanen
Timo Klaukka
Mika Kivimaki
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. H.Nabi@public-health.ucl.ac.uk
Source
J Hypertens. 2008 Nov;26(11):2236-43
Date
Nov-2008
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Antihypertensive Agents - therapeutic use
Comorbidity
Female
Finland
Humans
Hypertension - drug therapy - psychology
Male
Middle Aged
Odds Ratio
Patient Compliance - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Prospective Studies
Regression Analysis
Treatment Refusal - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Psychological factors may be important determinants of adherence to antihypertensive medication, as they have been repeatedly found to be associated with an increased risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease, and health-damaging behaviours. We examined the importance of several psychological attributes (sense of coherence, optimism, pessimism, hostility, anxiety) with regard to antihypertensive medication adherence assessed by pharmacy refill records.
A total of 1021 hypertensive participants, aged 26-63 years, who were employees in eight towns and 12 hospitals in Finland were included in the analyses.
We found 60% of patients to be totally adherent, 36% partially adherent, and 4% totally nonadherent. Multinomial regression analyses revealed high sense of coherence to be associated with lower odds of being totally nonadherent in contrast of being totally adherent (odds ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval: 0.31-0.96). This association was independent of factors that influenced adherence to antihypertensive medication, such as sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviours, self-reported medical history of doctor-diagnosed comorbidity, and anteriority of hypertension status. The association was not specific to certain types of antihypertensive drugs.
High sense of coherence may influence antihypertensive medication-adherence behaviour. Aspects characterizing this psychological attribute, such as knowledge (comprehensibility), capacity (manageability), and motivation (meaningfulness) may be important determinants of adherence behaviour for asymptomatic illnesses, such as hypertension, in which patients often do not feel or perceive the immediate consequences of skipping medication doses.
Notes
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PubMed ID
18854766 View in PubMed
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From midlife to early old age: health trajectories associated with retirement.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature97738
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 May;21(3):284-90
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2010
Author
Markus Jokela
Jane E Ferrie
David Gimeno
Tarani Chandola
Martin J Shipley
Jenny Head
Jussi Vahtera
Hugo Westerlund
Michael G Marmot
Mika Kivimäki
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, United Kingdom. markus.jokela@helsinki.fi
Source
Epidemiology. 2010 May;21(3):284-90
Date
May-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Aged
Aging
Cohort Studies
Female
Health status
Humans
Male
Mental health
Middle Aged
Questionnaires
Retirement
Sweden
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Previous studies report contradictory findings regarding health effects of retirement. This study examines longitudinally the associations of retirement with mental health and physical functioning. METHODS: The participants were 7584 civil servants from the Whitehall II cohort study aged 39-64 years at baseline and 54-76 years at the last follow-up. Self-reported mental health and physical functioning were assessed using the Short Form Medical Outcomes Survey questionnaire, and the scales were scored as T-scores (mean [SD] = 50 [10]). Retirement status and health were assessed with 6 repeated measurements over a 15-year period. RESULTS: The associations between retirement and health were dependent on age at retirement, reason for retirement, and length of time spent in retirement. Compared with continued employment, statutory retirement at age 60 and early voluntary retirement, respectively, were associated with 2.2 (95% confidence interval = 1.7 to 2.8) and 2.2 (1.7 to 2.7) points higher mental health and with 1.0 (0.6 to 1.5) and 1.1 (0.8 to 1.4) points higher physical functioning. Retirement due to ill health was associated with poorer mental health (-0.7 points [-1.62 to 0.2]) and physical functioning (-4.5 points [-5.1 to -3.9]). Within-subject analyses suggested a causal interpretation for statutory and voluntary retirement, but health selection for retirement due to ill health. CONCLUSIONS: Longitudinal analyses of repeat data suggest that health status improves after statutory and voluntarily retirement, although the improvement seems to attenuate over time. By contrast, the association between retirement due to ill health and subsequent poor health seems to reflect selection rather than causation.
PubMed ID
20220519 View in PubMed
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Personality traits and career choices among physicians in Finland: employment sector, clinical patient contact, specialty and change of specialty.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature294792
Source
BMC Med Educ. 2018 Mar 27; 18(1):52
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Mar-27-2018
Author
Sari Mullola
Christian Hakulinen
Justin Presseau
David Gimeno Ruiz de Porras
Markus Jokela
Taina Hintsa
Marko Elovainio
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Educational Sciences, University of Helsinki, (Siltavuorenpenger 5 A), P.O. Box 9, 00014, Helsinki, Finland. sari.mullola@helsinki.fi.
Source
BMC Med Educ. 2018 Mar 27; 18(1):52
Date
Mar-27-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Career Choice
Cross-Sectional Studies
Employment
Female
Finland
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Personality
Physicians - psychology
Retrospective Studies
Sex Factors
Specialization - statistics & numerical data
Students, Medical
Abstract
Personality influences an individual's adaptation to a specific job or organization. Little is known about personality trait differences between medical career and specialty choices after graduating from medical school when actually practicing different medical specialties. Moreover, whether personality traits contribute to important career choices such as choosing to work in the private or public sector or with clinical patient contact, as well as change of specialty, have remained largely unexplored. In a nationally representative sample of Finnish physicians (N?=?2837) we examined how personality traits are associated with medical career choices after graduating from medical school, in terms of employment sector, patient contact, medical specialty and change of specialty.
Personality was assessed using the shortened version of the Big Five Inventory (S-BFI). An analysis of covariance with posthoc tests for pairwise comparisons was conducted, adjusted for gender and age with confounders (employment sector, clinical patient contact and medical specialty).
Higher openness was associated with working in the private sector, specializing in psychiatry, changing specialty and not practicing with patients. Lower openness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in general practice as well as ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology. Higher conscientiousness was associated with a high amount of patient contact and specializing in surgery and other internal medicine specialties. Lower conscientiousness was associated with specializing in psychiatry and hospital service specialties. Higher agreeableness was associated with working in the private sector and specializing in general practice and occupational health. Lower agreeableness and neuroticism were associated with specializing in surgery. Higher extraversion was associated with specializing in pediatrics and change of specialty. Lower extraversion was associated with not practicing with patients.
The results showed distinctive personality traits to be associated with physicians' career and specialty choices after medical school independent of known confounding factors. Openness was the most consistent personality trait associated with physicians' career choices in terms of employment sector, amount of clinical patient contact, specialty choice and change of specialty. Personality-conscious medical career counseling and career guidance during and after medical education might enhance the person-job fit among physicians.
Notes
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PubMed ID
29587722 View in PubMed
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Socioeconomic position, psychosocial work environment and cerebrovascular disease among women: the Finnish public sector study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature153055
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;38(5):1265-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2009
Author
Mika Kivimäki
David Gimeno
Jane E Ferrie
G David Batty
Tuula Oksanen
Markus Jokela
Marianna Virtanen
Paula Salo
Tasnime N Akbaraly
Marko Elovainio
Jaana Pentti
Jussi Vahtera
Author Affiliation
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London, London, UK. m.kivimaki@uc
Source
Int J Epidemiol. 2009 Oct;38(5):1265-71
Date
Oct-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Cerebrovascular Disorders - epidemiology - psychology
Cohort Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Internal-External Control
Middle Aged
Occupational Diseases - epidemiology - psychology
Risk factors
Socioeconomic Factors
Stress, Psychological - epidemiology - psychology
Young Adult
Abstract
The excess risk of fatal and non-fatal cerebrovascular disease in people from low socioeconomic positions is only partially explained by conventional cerebrovascular risk factors. This has led to the suggestion that poor psychosocial work environments provide important additional explanatory power. However, little evidence is available for women.
We examined whether job demands or job control contributed to the socioeconomic gradient in cerebrovascular disease among 48 361 women aged 18-65 years. Job demands, job control and behavioural risk factors were self-reported in 2000-2002; socioeconomic position (as indexed by occupational class) and all of the health measures were obtained from registers. The outcome was recorded hospitalization or death from cerebrovascular disease.
During a mean follow-up of 3.4 years, 124 women had a new cerebrovascular disease event. The risk was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.9) times higher among women in low vs high socioeconomic positions. Adjustment for conventional risk factors, such as prevalent hypertension, coronary heart disease, diabetes, smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and obesity, attenuated this excess risk by 23%. In contrast, adjustment for job demands and job control actually amplified the gradient by 36% suggesting a suppression effect.
In this contemporary cohort of employed women, job demands-alone and in combination with job control-suppressed rather than explained socioeconomic differences in cerebrovascular disease.
Notes
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PubMed ID
19155280 View in PubMed
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