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Comparison of the microbiological quality of water coolers and that of municipal water systems.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature218521
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Apr;60(4):1174-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1994
Author
B. Lévesque
P. Simard
D. Gauvin
S. Gingras
E. Dewailly
R. Letarte
Author Affiliation
Service Santé et Environnement, Centre de Santé Publique de Québec, Ste. Foy, Canada.
Source
Appl Environ Microbiol. 1994 Apr;60(4):1174-8
Date
Apr-1994
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Drinking
Equipment Contamination
Household Articles
Humans
Hygiene
Mineral Waters - analysis
Quebec
Sanitary Engineering
Water Microbiology
Water Pollution
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
The microbiological quality of tap water and that of water from 50 water coolers located in residences and workplaces were comparatively studied. In addition, difference factors that might influence the bacteriological contamination of water dispensers were examined. Aeorbic and facultative anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and two indicators for fecal contamination (fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci) as well as three types of pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Aeromonas spp.) were enumerated. It was found that 36 and 28% of the water dispenser samples from the residences and the workplaces, respectively, were contaminated by a least one coliform or indicator bacterium and/or at least one pathogenic bacterium. The respective proportions of tap water samples contaminated in a similar fashion were 18 and 22%, much less than those observed for water coolers (Chi2(1) = 3.71, P = 0.05). We were unable to discern the dominant factors responsible for the contamination of water coolers, but cleaning the water dispenser every 2 months seemed to limit the extent of contamination.
Notes
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PubMed ID
8017912 View in PubMed
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Electric and magnetic field exposures for people living near a 735-kilovolt power line.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature214501
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Sep;103(9):832-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1995
Author
P. Levallois
D. Gauvin
J. St-Laurent
S. Gingras
J E Deadman
Author Affiliation
Centre de Santé Publique de Québec, Ste-Foy, Canada.
Source
Environ Health Perspect. 1995 Sep;103(9):832-7
Date
Sep-1995
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Electric Wiring
Electromagnetic fields
Environmental Exposure - analysis
Female
Humans
Male
Quebec
Time Factors
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a 735-kV transmission line on the electric and magnetic field exposures of people living at the edge of the line's right of way. Exposure of 18 adults, mostly white-collar workers, living in different bungalows located 190-240 feet from the line (exposed subjects) was compared to that of 17 adults living in similar residences far away from any transmission line. Each subject carried a Positron meter for 24 hr during 1 workday, which measured 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields every minute. All measurements were carried out in parallel for exposed and unexposed subjects during the same weeks between September and December. During measurements the average loading on the line varied between 600 and 1100 A. The average magnetic field intensity while at home was 4.4 times higher among exposed subjects than unexposed (7.1 versus 1.6 mG, p = 0.0001) and 6.2 times higher when considering only the sleeping period (6.8 versus 1.1 mG, p = 0.0001). Based on the 24-hr measurement, average magnetic field exposure was three times higher among the exposed. Electric field intensity was also higher among the exposed while at home (26.3 versus 14.0 V/m, p = 0.03). Magnetic field intensity among the exposed was positively correlated with the loading on the line (r = 0.8, p = 0.001). Percentage of time above a magnetic field threshold (2 mG or 7.8 mG) was a good indicator to distinguish the two types of exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Notes
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Erratum In: Environ Health Perspect 1998 Sep;106(9):A422
PubMed ID
7498095 View in PubMed
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Groundwater contamination by nitrates associated with intensive potato culture in Qu├ębec.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204893
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jun 30;217(1-2):91-101
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-30-1998
Author
P. Levallois
M. Thériault
J. Rouffignat
S. Tessier
R. Landry
P. Ayotte
M. Girard
S. Gingras
D. Gauvin
C. Chiasson
Author Affiliation
Département de Médecine Sociale et Préventive, Faculte de Médecine, Université Laval, Québec, Canada. Patrick.Levallois@msp.ulaval.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jun 30;217(1-2):91-101
Date
Jun-30-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Agriculture
Environmental monitoring
Fertilizers
Humans
Information Systems
Nitrates - analysis
Public Health
Quebec
Sewage
Soil Pollutants - analysis
Solanum tuberosum
Water Pollutants, Chemical - analysis
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
In rural areas, groundwater contamination by nitrates is a problem related to the spreading of organic and chemical fertilizers by farmers and, to some extent, to effluents from domestic sewage systems. Health effects of groundwater contamination by nitrates have been assessed several times and may lead to important consequences for infants. Following pressures from citizens in 1990, a survey of well water quality around potato fields of the Portneuf county (Québec) found that nitrate contamination was frequently above the 10 mg-N/1 standard. Because this first survey was limited to areas of intensive potato culture, it was not possible to evaluate the real impact on the groundwater quality for the whole county and the subsequent public health intervention was spread over the entire region. A second survey was carried out in 1995 to reevaluate the situation using random sampling methods. This latter study took into account drinking water habits of the population, the relative importance of potato culture as a source of nitrogen loading, the effects of soil types, and waste-water disposal systems as well as land use on nitrate concentration in private well water. The data analysis was carried out by combining GIS and statistical methods to test hypotheses about the spatial relationship linking measured nitrate concentrations with their immediate environment. This paper presents the major findings from this second study which confirm the impact of intensive potato culture on groundwater nitrate concentrations, mainly localized in sandy soil areas within 2 km of fields. Finally, it illustrates the usefulness of GIS to focus public health interventions.
PubMed ID
9695174 View in PubMed
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Indoor exposure to 222Rn: a public health perspective.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature204720
Source
Health Phys. 1998 Sep;75(3):297-302
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-1998
Author
P. Ayotte
B. Lévesque
D. Gauvin
R G McGregor
R. Martel
S. Gingras
W B Walker
E G Létourneau
Author Affiliation
Québec Public Health Centre, Beauport, Canada.
Source
Health Phys. 1998 Sep;75(3):297-302
Date
Sep-1998
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - adverse effects - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - adverse effects - analysis
Female
Humans
Lung Neoplasms - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Male
Models, Biological
Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced - etiology - mortality - prevention & control
Public Health
Quebec - epidemiology
Radiation Dosage
Radon - administration & dosage - adverse effects - analysis
Risk assessment
Abstract
The objective of this study was to assess the lung cancer risk resulting from indoor radon exposure in the province of Quebec, Canada, and to evaluate the efficacy of mitigation measures to reduce this exposure. Concentrations of radon were determined in a representative sample of houses, and the corresponding lung cancer risk estimates were generated using the BEIR IV model, taking into account smoking, residential mobility, and regional variations in radon concentrations. Mean (geometric) radon concentrations in basements (n = 418) and on first floors (n = 319) were, respectively, 34.4 (95% CI-30.6 to 38.8) and 16.5 Bq m(-3) (14.2 to 19.3). A total of 109 deaths from lung cancer are predicted to occur as a result of this exposure in a cohort of 60,000 people. Detecting all residences with high radon concentrations (equal to or above 200 Bq m(-3)) and implementing mitigation measures in each of them would reduce by 4 the number of lung cancer deaths attributable to indoor radon exposure. A reduction of 0.05% in the prevalence of smoking would prevent as many deaths from lung cancer as would radon mitigation. From a public health perspective, in order to reduce mortality from lung cancer, most efforts should be focused on smoking, not on the relatively minor and hardly preventable population risk arising from household radon exposure.
PubMed ID
9721839 View in PubMed
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[Outbreak of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in a school].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211529
Source
Can J Public Health. 1996 Jul-Aug;87(4):264-7
Publication Type
Article
Author
C. Gaulin
B. Lévesque
D. Gauvin
V. Krizanova
Author Affiliation
Centre de santé publique de Québec, Beauport.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1996 Jul-Aug;87(4):264-7
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - microbiology - prevention & control
Humans
Norwalk virus
Quebec - epidemiology
Schools
Abstract
An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a school affecting more than 30% of its 535 students. An epidemiological survey questionnaire was given to all students as well as staff and maintenance personnel. Stool cultures and electronic microscopy were used to detect the presence of a Norwalk-like virus. Several analyses of water samples were also done. This outbreak occurred simultaneously in the two wings of the school (East and South). Those who used the East wing were most affected by the disease (RR = 1.45, CI 95%: 1,14-1,85). There was no indication of food or water supply contamination. A Norwalk-like virus was identified in the stool sample of one child. This along with the clinical characteristics strongly suggested that the pathogen was indeed a Norwalk-like virus. The analysis suggests transmission via contaminated surfaces but also via airborne transport of the infectious agent.
PubMed ID
8964025 View in PubMed
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[Outbreak of non-bacterial gastroenteritis in a school].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature211988
Source
Can J Public Health. 1996 May-Jun;87(3):208-11
Publication Type
Article
Author
C. Gaulin
B. Lévesque
D. Gauvin
V. Krizanorv
Author Affiliation
Centre de santé publique de Québec.
Source
Can J Public Health. 1996 May-Jun;87(3):208-11
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Caliciviridae Infections - epidemiology - transmission - virology
Child
Child, Preschool
Disease Outbreaks
Gastroenteritis - epidemiology - virology
Humans
Norwalk virus
Quebec
Schools
Abstract
An outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a school affecting more than 30% of its 535 students. An epidemiological survey questionnaire was given to all students as well as staff and maintenance personnel. Stool cultures and electronic microscopy were used to detect the presence of a Norwalk-like virus. Several analyses of water samples were also done. This outbreak occurred simultaneously in the two wings of the school (East and South). Those who used the East wing were most affected by the disease (RR = 1.45, CI 95%: 1,14-1,85). There was no indication of food or water supply contamination. A Norwalk-like virus was identified in the stool sample of one child. This along with the clinical characteristics strongly suggested that the pathogen was indeed a Norwalk-like virus. The analysis suggests transmission via contaminated surfaces but also via airborne transport of the infectious agent.
PubMed ID
8771928 View in PubMed
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Radon in residences: influences of geological and housing characteristics.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature208376
Source
Health Phys. 1997 Jun;72(6):907-14
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jun-1997
Author
B. Lévesque
D. Gauvin
R G McGregor
R. Martel
S. Gingras
A. Dontigny
W B Walker
P. Lajoie
E. Létourneau
Author Affiliation
Centre de santé publique de Québec/Québec Centre for public Health, d'Estimauville, Beauport, Canada.
Source
Health Phys. 1997 Jun;72(6):907-14
Date
Jun-1997
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants, Radioactive - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Biophysical Phenomena
Biophysics
Geological Phenomena
Geology
Housing
Humans
Quebec
Radon - analysis
Abstract
222Rn is a radioactive gas emitted during the decay of 238U. 222Rn is a recognized lung carcinogen in humans and a common indoor air contaminant. This paper describes the results of research undertaken in 894 residences of the Province of Quebec (Canada), in which one of the objectives was to evaluate the influence of geological and housing characteristics on 222Rn levels. After a random selection of homes, 222Rn concentrations were measured with alpha track detectors in the basement and the main bedroom during two consecutive 6-mo periods. Geological subsoil characteristics were determined from various sources (e.g., geological maps, databanks on uranium sampling in lake and stream sediments), and housing characteristics were documented with a questionnaire. Statistical variance analysis of data indicates that geological factors only explain 5% and 4.5% of the variations in 222Rn concentrations, respectively, in the basement and on the first floor. When variables relative to housing characteristics are added, the analysis explains only 18% and 15% of the variations in 222Rn concentrations in the basement and on the first floor. These results illustrate the difficulties in predicting 222Rn concentrations in homes.
PubMed ID
9169932 View in PubMed
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[Study of the incidence of giardiasis in Quebec (Canada) and association with drinking water source and quality].

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature200089
Source
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1999 Oct;47(5):403-10
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-1999
Author
B. Lévesque
L. Rochette
P. Levallois
C. Barthe
D. Gauvin
P. Chevalier
Author Affiliation
Direction régionale de la santé publique de Québec, Canada.
Source
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique. 1999 Oct;47(5):403-10
Date
Oct-1999
Language
French
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Aged
Animals
Child
Child, Preschool
Giardiasis - epidemiology - etiology
Humans
Incidence
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Middle Aged
Quebec - epidemiology
Risk factors
Seasons
Water Pollution
Water Supply - standards
Abstract
We analyzed data from the notifiable diseases data base in Québec to document the incidence of giardiasis. The objectives were to perform a descriptive analysis of the cases of giardiasis and to verify the relation between their incidence and the quality of drinking water.
The Québec notifiable diseases data-base contained 4273 cases of giardiasis declared between January 1st, 1990 and December 31st, 1995. Incidence rates were adjusted for age and calculated monthly. The sources and kinds of treatment of drinking water permitted to elaborate a vulnerability scale for classifying contamination by Giardia sp. into four categories. Incidence of giardiasis was examined in relation with this vulnerability scale. Other socioeconomic indicators possibly associated with the incidence of giardiasis were also analyzed.
Analysis showed that there were few annual variations in the incidence of giardiasis and that there were no epidemic peaks during the study period. According to age, the incidence follows a bimodal pattern with a peak for young children and young adults. The incidence rates showed an increase of the cases at the end of summer and at the beginning of fall, with a higher relative risk for males. Even if no relation was found between the incidence of giardiasis and the vulnerability of the drinking water source, incidence rates were lower for people living in communities that use the St. Lawrence River as a drinking water source than for those using other sources of surface water.
This study allowed us to obtain a good description of the cases of giardiasis declared in Québec and to formulate hypothesis about their causes. The lower incidence of giardiasis in communities that use the St. Lawrence river as their drinking water source is possibly related to a lower contamination of this source. However, considering the limits of this work, case-control studies should be considered to understand variables, which influence the incidence of giardiasis in Québec.
PubMed ID
10587991 View in PubMed
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8 records – page 1 of 1.