The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship of aldosterone to blood pressure and left ventricular size in black American (n=109) and white French Canadian (n=73) patients with essential hypertension. Measurements were obtained with patients off antihypertensive medications and included 24-hour blood pressure monitoring, plasma renin activity and aldosterone, and an echocardiogram. Compared with the French Canadians, the black Americans had higher body mass indexes, higher systolic blood pressures, attenuated nighttime reduction of blood pressure, and lower serum potassium concentrations (P:
In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), the efficacy of the inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase shows considerable interindividual variation, and several genetic and environmental factors can contribute to explaining this variability. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial with simvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, was conducted in 63 children and adolescents with heterozygous FH. The patients were grouped according to known LDL receptor genotype. After 6 weeks of treatment with 20 mg/d simvastatin, the mean reduction in plasma LDL cholesterol in patients with the W66G mutation (n=14) was 31%, whereas in the deletion>15 kb (n=23) and the C646Y mutation groups (n=10), it was 38% and 42%, respectively (P
Activation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) is a key initial step in the insulin signalling pathway. Despite several reports of association of the G972R polymorphism in its gene IRS1 with type 2 diabetes, we and others have not observed this association in well-powered samples. However, other nearby variants might account for the putative association signal.
We characterised the haplotype map of IRS1 and selected 20 markers designed to capture common variations in the region. We genotyped this comprehensive set of markers in several family-based and case-control samples of European descent totalling 12,129 subjects.
In an initial sample of 2,235 North American and Polish case-control pairs, the minor allele of the rs934167 polymorphism showed nominal evidence of association with type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.25, 95% CI 1.03-1.51, p = 0.03). This association showed a trend in the same direction in 7,659 Scandinavian samples (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.96-1.39, p = 0.059). The combined OR was 1.20 (p = 0.008), but statistical correction for the number of variants examined yielded a p value of 0.086. We detected no differences across rs934167 genotypes in insulin-related quantitative traits.
Our data do not support an association of common variants in IRS1 with type 2 diabetes in populations of European descent.
The Canadian Organ Replacement Register annual report (1998) provides insightful trends in renal replacement treatment modalities, comparing data from 1981 to 1996. The purpose of reviewing this report was to look at the scope of change over time in the distribution of treatment modalities and Canadian patient demographics: age, gender, dwelling (alternate care facilities, home and in-hospital), and medical conditions (vascular access, communicable diseases, diagnosis, and cause of death). Discussion focuses on the impact of these and other changes in the practice setting and describes the Canadian Association of Nephrology Nurses and Technologists' (CANNT) initiatives to support nephrology nurses and technologists.
The aim of this study was to compare the age at first elective coronary angiogram and the age at first revascularization (coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty) in 102 patients without familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), who were matched for age and sex with 76 heterozygous FH patients carrying a defective allele at the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDL-R) and 26 heterozygous FH patients bearing a null mutation at the LDL-R. The prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in the non-FH group than in the two FH groups (P 50% stenosis was higher in null allele carriers than in non-FH patients and tended to be higher than among defective allele carriers (P
The purpose of this project was to evaluate the potential of the downward hierarchical clustering analysis (DHCA) for studying genetic heterogeneity, i.e. differences in allele frequency in subpopulations, such as the 15 public health regions of the province of Québec (Canada).
The study relied on an anonymized sample of 1,680 individuals who had participated in the Québec Heart Health Survey in 1990-1991. The genotyping of 11 variants in 8 candidate genes known to be involved in chronic inflammatory diseases, namely asthma and cardiovascular diseases, was performed using the amplification refractory mutation system and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Only variants showing an allelic frequency >2% in the Québec Heart Health Survey (n = 8) were selected. DHCA techniques were then applied to model the geographical distribution of these 8 genetic variants in 15 Québec public health regions and to study genetic heterogeneity.
The DHCA allowed to group public health regions and gene variants on the basis of genetic variability. For both asthma and cardiovascular diseases, 3 significant clusters of public health regions and 1 cluster of gene variants were identified.
This study suggests that DHCA might be useful in studying genetic heterogeneity at the population level and for public health activities.
Contribution of receptor negative versus receptor defective mutations in the LDL-receptor gene to angiographically assessed coronary artery disease among young (25-49 years) versus middle-aged (50-64 years) men.
Elevated plasma LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), a monogenic trait due to mutations in the LDL-receptor (R) gene is characterized by raised plasma LDL-C levels and premature CAD. The aim of the present investigation, derived from the study of a population of 1465 unrelated men aged 25 to 64 years, was to compare the expression of CAD assessed by coronary angiography in young (aged 25-49 years) versus middle-aged (50-64 years) heterozygous FH patients of French Canadian descent. Furthermore, the relationship of binding-defective versus receptor negative mutations in the LDL-R to premature CAD ( 15 kb or point mutations Y468X or R329X) whereas 64 were carriers of a receptor defective mutation (W66G, E207K or C646Y). As expected, in both age groups (25-49 years vs. 50-64 years), carriers of a receptor negative mutation had higher plasma cholesterol and LDL-C levels than carriers of a defective allele or men with a normal plasma lipoprotein-lipid profile. In addition, the mean number of diseased vessels (with > 50% stenosis) was higher in men aged 50-64 years compared to those aged 25 49 years. In the two age groups, FH patients were characterized by a higher number of stenosed coronary vessels than the normal phenotype group. Within each group (either receptor negative, receptor defective or normal phenotype) plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride and apolipoprotein B levels were similar irrespective of age (25 49 years vs. 50-64 years). Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that compared to non-FH men, the relative odds of being affected by CAD before the age of 50 years was 7.3-fold higher for carriers of a receptor negative mutation and 2.7-fold higher for men with a receptor defective mutation at the LDL-R locus. These results suggest that CAD could be an earlier event among heterozygous FH subjects bearing a receptor negative mutation compared to LDL-R defective patients. It also suggest that the selective screening for mutations in the LDL-R gene may allow a better assessment of the individual risk and facilitate the development of family-based preventive strategies or intervention programs in FH.
Six test media, m-TEC, m-TEC with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG), lauryl tryptose agar (LTA) with MUG, LTA with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-glucuronide (X-Glue), EC medium with MUG, and lauryl tryptose broth with MUG, were evaluated for their usefulness in enumerating Escherichia coli in nonpotable waters on a routine basis. The media were chosen for their case of interpretation of target colonies, ability to allow enumeration at low and high concentrations, and ability to inhibit nontarget microorganisms. The recoveries on the test media were compared with those on three reference media, R2A, m-FC, and m-Endo, by analysis of spiked samples of filter-sterilized waters. The test media were then further tested for their ability to differentiate nontarget but closely related microorganisms. Statistical analysis indicated that the best recoveries were obtained with lauryl tryptose agar with added MUG and X-Gluc. The media were then tested with surface waters that could be expected to have high levels of total and fecal coliforms along with Escherichia coli.
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1988 Jul;54(7):1874-53046494
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 1989 Apr;55(4):1003-82658802