A random sample of 580 people aged between 50 and 89 yr completed a questionnaire containing two measures of dental fear and anxiety. One of these was Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) and the other a scale derived from the Structured Interview for Assessing Dental Fear (SIADF). The mean score on the DAS was 7.8, and 8.4% of subjects were classified as dentally anxious. There were no differences in mean DAS scores by sex but significant differences by age, with younger individuals having higher scores (P less than 0.0001). The edentulous had significantly higher scores than the dentate (P less than 0.001). Scores on the SIADF scale were higher among younger individuals (P less than 0.0001), the edentulous (P less than 0.01) and women (P less than 0.05). Older adults who were dentally anxious were less likely to report a regular source of dental care and a dental visit in the previous year and more likely to report having avoided or delayed dental treatment. Possible explanations of higher dental anxiety scores among younger persons and the edentulous are reviewed.
In this phase I clinical study, the new ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent, NC100150 Injection (Nycomed AS, Oslo, Norway, a part of Nycomed Amersham), was assessed for first-pass magnetic resonance myocardial perfusion studies and its ability to produce equilibrium signal changes, as a possible indicator of myocardial blood volume. Data were acquired in 18 healthy male volunteers at 0.5 T and 1.5 T. At both field strengths, first-pass studies using T1-weighted sequences were acquired. Long TE spin-echo echoplanar imaging (EPI) was used at 0.5 T and short TE fast low-angle shot (FLASH) imaging at 1.5 T. With both sequences, T1 effects dominated the images for low doses, and time intensity curves potentially suitable for perfusion analysis were generated. At higher doses, T2 and T2* effects were observed. At 1.5 T, these predominantly affected the blood pool signal; however, at 0.5 T the myocardial signal was also involved, reflecting the relative T2 and T2* sensitivity of the spin-echo EPI sequence as a result of the long TE and long readout window, respectively. Equilibrium changes were assessed at both field strengths using T1-weighted FLASH sequences and in addition at 1.5 T using T2*-weighted gradient-echo EPI. With the T1-weighted images at both field strengths, signal changes were observed in all subjects; however, no dose-response relationship could be shown. With the T2*-weighted EPI there was significantly lower signal (P
This paper reports the results of a survey of 1000 certified dental assistants in Ontario, Canada. The aim was to obtain data on work-related stress, its sources and predictors. Of those responding to the survey, 38.8% said that their work was moderately stressful and 14.5% said it was very or extremely stressful. Approximately one-third had been bothered by stress at work on three or more days in the previous week. The main sources of stress were working under constant time pressures, running behind schedule and feeling undervalued by the dentist. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the main predictors of work stress were not having a clear job description, working long hours, life stress while not at work and age. However, these variables explained less than 10% of the variance in job stress scores. Overall, 22.8% said it was very likely that they would seek work in another practice or seek work outside dentistry in the coming year. There was a significant association between work stress and job intentions; 43.0% of those reporting high levels of stress intended to change jobs compared to 8.9% of those who said that their job was not at all stressful (P less than 0.0001). These findings have implications for the way in which dental practice is organised and managed.