Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a well-documented risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it is unknown whether another common stress disorder-adjustment disorder--is also associated with an increased risk of CVD and whether gender modifies these associations. The aim of this study was to examine the overall and gender-stratified associations between PTSD and adjustment disorder and 4 CVD events.
Prospective cohort study utilising Danish national registry data.
The general population of Denmark.
PTSD (n=4724) and adjustment disorder (n=64,855) cohorts compared with the general population of Denmark from 1995 to 2011.
CVD events including myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, ischaemic stroke and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Standardised incidence rates and 95% CIs were calculated.
Associations were found between PTSD and all 4 CVD events ranging from 1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9) for MI to 2.1 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.7) for VTE. Associations that were similar in magnitude were also found for adjustment disorder and all 4 CVD events: 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.6) for MI to 1.9 (95% CI 1.8 to 2.0) for VTE. No gender differences were noted.
By expanding beyond PTSD and examining a second stress disorder-adjustment disorder-this study provides evidence that stress-related psychopathology is associated with CVD events. Further, limited evidence of gender differences in associations for either of the stress disorders and CVD was found.
Recent data suggest a reduced risk of malignant melanoma (MM) among atopic dermatitis (AD) patients, but an increased risk of other skin cancers (including basal cell carcinoma [BCC] and squamous cell carcinoma [SCC]).
We examined the association between AD and skin cancers in a large cohort study in Denmark from 1977 through 2006.
Our cohort consisted of 31 330 AD patients recorded in the Danish National Patient Registry, including AD patients admitted to hospitals and specialized outpatient clinics. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry allowed ascertainment of skin cancers. We calculated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by comparing the incidence rate of skin cancers among AD patients with that among the general Danish population.
The overall observed number of MM cases among AD patients was 12, with 21 expected, yielding a SIR of 0.59 (95% CI 0.30, 1.02), with the most pronounced protective effect among AD patients with more than 5 years of follow-up (SIR?=?0.46; 95% CI 0.19, 0.95). The corresponding SIRs for BCC and SCC were increased among AD patients (1.41 [95% CI 1.07, 1.83] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.00, 5.11], respectively).
Our findings support an inverse association between AD and MM, but an increased risk of BCC and SCC among AD patients.
We quantified and differentiated reticulin and collagen content in bone marrow specimens from chronic immune thrombocytopenic (ITP) patients and examined the correlation between some clinical characteristics and the fibrosis grading. Through the Danish National Patient Registry, we identified 378 patients with chronic ITP from 1997 until 2007. Of these, 253 (67%) had undergone at least one bone marrow biopsy, and we retrieved the bone marrow specimens from 187 (74%). We graded the bone marrow content of reticulin and collagen according to the Thiele scale (Grade 0-3). We also retrieved information on patients' clinical characteristics. We examined the prevalence of bone marrow fibrosis grading > 0 by patients' age (= 75 years and > 75 years), sex, platelet count at baseline (0. Of these, 72 (39%) had Grade 1 reticulin fibers present. Only three patients ( 0 was lower in patients aged > 75 years than = 75 years (prevalence ratio = 0.64, 95% CI: 0.36-1.15) and lower in men than women (prevalence ratio = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.45-1.09), while a baseline platelet count = 30 × 10?/L was associated with a higher prevalence of grading > 0 (prevalence ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.81-1.86). Thus, bone marrow reticulin and collagen content in chronic ITP patients may be associated with some clinical characteristics.
Candida species infection may be associated with increased cancer risk.
We linked data from the nationwide medical registries and examined the incidence of various cancers in patients with a first-time hospital presentation with candida infection. We computed the cumulative incidence of cancer and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of cancer overall, immune-related cancers, and specific cancer types by comparing observed versus expected incidences based on age-, sex-, and anatomical site-specific incidence rates.
Among 21,247 candida-infected patients, we identified 1534 cancers during a combined follow-up of 187,993 years (standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5-1.7)). The 1- and 10-year risks of cancer were 2.6%, and 8.3%, respectively. In the first year after a candida diagnosis, the SIR for cancer was 3.7 (95% CI: 3.4-4.0). In the second and subsequent years of follow-up, the SIRs were 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.3) for any cancer and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7) for immune-related cancers. The risk of mouth and throat cancers remained more than 3-fold increased in the second and subsequent years of follow-up.
Hospital presentation with candida infection is associated with increased short- and long-term cancer risk.
While patients with gastrointestinal cancer are at increased risk of cholangitis, it is less clear whether cholangitis is also a marker for occult gastrointestinal cancer. If an undiagnosed cancer obstructs the bile duct system and causes cholangitis, the short-term risk of cancer will appear increased. However, an increased long-term risk of cancer may originate from chronic inflammatory processes. We assessed the risk of a gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis subsequent to a cholangitis diagnosis during a 17-year period in Denmark.
We conducted a nationwide population-based cohort study by linking Danish medical registries during 1994-2010. We quantified the excess risk of cancer in cholangitis patients using relative (standardised incidence ratio; SIR) and absolute (excess absolute risk per 1000 person-years at risk; EAR) risk calculations.
4333 patients with cholangitis (including 178 with primary sclerosing cholangitis) were followed for 17 222 person-years. During the follow-up period, 477 gastrointestinal cancers occurred versus 59 expected, corresponding to a SIR of 8.12 (95% CI 7.41 to 8.88). Risk was increased mainly for cancer in the small intestine (SIR 18.2; 95% CI 8.69 to 33.4), liver (SIR 16.3; 95% CI 11.6 to 22.2), gallbladder and biliary tract (SIR 70.9; 95% CI 59.0 to 84.4) and pancreas (SIR 31.7; 95% CI 27.8 to 36.0). During the first 6 months of follow-up, 314 patients were diagnosed with gastrointestinal cancer, corresponding to a SIR of 49.8 (95% CI 44.4 to 55.6) and an EAR of 175.
Cholangitis is a marker of occult gastrointestinal cancer.
Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the risk of both types of malignancies after an ET, PV, or CML diagnosis. We linked 2 population-based nationwide registries, the Danish National Registry of Patients, covering all Danish hospitals and the Danish Cancer Registry, and assessed subsequent cancer risk in a cohort of all 7229 patients diagnosed with a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm during 1977-2008. We compared the incidence of subsequent cancer in this cohort with that expected on the basis of cancer incidence in the general population (standardized incidence ratio). Overall, ET, PV, and CML patients were at increased risk of developing both new hematologic and nonhematologic cancers. The standardized incidence ratio for developing a nonhematologic cancer was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI]): 1.0-1.4) for patients with ET, 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5) for patients with PV, and 1.6 (95% CI: 1.3-2.0) for patients with CML. We conclude that patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms are at increased risk of developing a new malignant disease.
Persistent cervical infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) may be a marker of poor immune function and thus associated with an increased cancer risk. HPV infection is implicated in all cases of cervical cancer, but except for anal and esophageal cancers, the association between persistent HPV infection and gastrointestinal cancer has not been investigated.
We performed a nationwide population-based cohort study of 83,008 women undergoing cervical conization between 1978 and 2011, using cervical conization as a marker of chronic HPV infection. We computed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of the relative risk of each cancer comparing women undergoing conization with that expected in the general population. We also calculated absolute risks.
During follow-up, 988 GI cancers occurred versus 880 expected among 83,008 women followed for a median of 14.9 years, corresponding to a SIR of 1.1 (95 % CI 1.1-1.2). Risks were increased for anal (SIR 2.9; 95 % CI 2.3-3.5) and esophageal (SIR 1.5; 95 % CI 1.1-2.0) cancers, with suggested increased risks of cancers of the gallbladder and biliary tract (SIR 1.3; 95 % CI 0.90-1.8), pancreas (SIR 1.2; 95 % CI 0.97-1.4), and liver (SIR 1.1; 95 % CI 0.79-1.6). The SIRs decreased with increasing follow-up time. The risks of gastric, small intestinal, colon, or rectal cancers were not elevated. Overall, the absolute cancer risk was 0.18 % (95 % CI 0.15-0.21) after 5 years.
The relative risks of several gastrointestinal cancers were raised among women who underwent cervical conization for persistent HPV infection, but the absolute risks were low.
In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), timely reperfusion with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) is the preferred treatment. However, it remains unclear whether the optimal strategy is complete revascularisation or culprit vessel PPCI only.
From January 2002 to June 2009 all patients treated with PPCI were identified from the Western Denmark Heart Registry. We examined mortality according to timing of multivessel PCI: acute procedure, staged procedure during the index hospitalisation, or staged procedure performed within 60 days. The hazard ratio (HR) for death was estimated using a time-dependent Cox regression model, with time of PCI for the non-culprit lesion as the time-dependent variable. The study cohort consisted of 5,944 patients, of whom 4,770 (80%) had single-vessel disease and 1,174 (20%) had multivessel PCI within 60 days. Among 354 (30.2%) patients with acute multivessel PCI, 194 (16.5%) patients with multivessel PCI during the index hospitalisation, and 626 (53.3%) patients with multivessel PCI within 60 days after the index hospitalisation, the adjusted HRs for one-year mortality were 1.53 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-2.18), 0.60 (95% CI: 0.28-1.26), and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.14-0.54), respectively, compared to patients with single vessel disease.
Acute multivessel PCI in patients with STEMI was associated with increased mortality.
Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl.
We conducted a population-based cohort study using data from Danish medical registries during 1998-2014. The study included 25,017 patients with a cancer diagnosis and Cbl levels of 200-600 pmol/L (reference/normal range), 601-800 pmol/L and >800 pmol/L measured up to one year prior to diagnosis, and a comparison cohort of 61,988 cancer patients without a plasma Cbl measurement. Patients treated with Cbl were excluded. Survival probability was assessed using Kaplan-Meier curves. Mortality risk ratios (MRR) were computed using Cox proportional hazard regression, adjusted for age, sex, calendar year, cancer stage and comorbidity, scored using the Charlson comorbidity index.
Survival probabilities were lower among patients with elevated Cbl levels than among patients with normal levels and among members of the comparison cohort [(1-year survival,%) Cbl: 200-600 pmol/L: 69.3%; 601-800 pmol/L: 49.6%; >800 pmol/L: 35.8%; comparison cohort: 72.6%]. Thirty-day mortality was elevated for patients with Cbl levels of 601-800 pmol/L or >800 pmol/L, compared to patients with levels of 200-600 pmol/L [(MRR (95% confidence interval): 601-800 pmol/L vs. 200-600 pmol/L: 1.9 (1.6-2.2); >800 pmol/L vs. 200-600 pmol/L: 2.7 (2.4-3.1)]. This association remained robust for 31-90-day and 91-365-day mortality, showing similar dose-response patterns.
Cancer patients with elevated Cbl levels had higher mortality than those with normal Cbl levels. These findings may have clinical significance for assessing the prognosis of cancer patients.
Endocarditis may be a marker for bacteremia-associated occult cancer. Intensive antibiotic treatment in endocarditis is suggested to reduce long-term cancer risk. We examined these hypotheses in a nationwide cohort study.
Endocarditis patients and cancer cases were identified from the Danish National Registry of Patients and the Danish Cancer Registry during 1978-2008. We compared the incidences of various cancers among study subjects to expected incidences based on national age-, sex-, and site-specific rates.
We observed 997 cancers among 8445 endocarditis patients (median follow-up of 3.5 years), reflecting an increased standardized incidence rate (SIR) of 1.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.51-1.71). Cancer risk was highly elevated during the first 3 months of follow-up (SIR=8.03; 95% CI, 6.92-9.26), partly due to a 15- to 30-fold increased risk of hematological or liver cancers. Between 3-month and 5-year follow-ups, cancer incidence remained 1.5-fold higher than expected, including 2- and 4-fold increased SIRs for colorectal and liver cancers, respectively. Beyond 5 years of observation, the overall cancer SIR was 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.34). Long-term associations were weak for several cancers hypothesized to be associated with antibiotic use, including prostate, gastric, and breast cancer.
Endocarditis is a substantial clinical marker for presence of occult cancer. We found no evidence of decreased long-term cancer risk after antibiotic treatment for endocarditis.