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Inuit housing and homelessness: results from the International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature128983
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):520-31
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Katherine Minich
Helga Saudny
Crystal Lennie
Michele Wood
Laakkuluk Williamson-Bathory
Zhirong Cao
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment, McGill University, Ste. Anne-de-Bellevue, QC H9X 3V9, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):520-31
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Crowding
Family Relations
Female
Health Behavior
Health Surveys
Homeless Persons - statistics & numerical data
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Middle Aged
Poverty - statistics & numerical data
Prevalence
Abstract
Evaluate housing characteristics across Inuit regions in Canada that participated in the 2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY) Inuit Health Survey.
A cross-sectional Inuit Health Survey.
Housing characteristics were ascertained as part of the IPY Inuit Health Survey through interviews conducted in 33 coastal and 3 inland communities, representing all communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) of NWT, Nunavut and Nunatsiavut of northern Labrador. Variable descriptive statistics were weighted and presented by region and by whether children were present or not in each household.
A total of 2,796 Inuit households were approached, of which 68% participated (n=1,901 households). In ISR and Nunavut, approximately 20% of homes provided shelter to the homeless compared to 12% in Nunatsiavut (p=0.05). The prevalence of public housing and household crowding also varied by region, with Nunavut having a statistically significantly higher prevalence of crowding (30%) than Nunatsiavut (12%) and ISR (12%). Household crowding was more prevalent among homes with children. Overall, 40% of homes were in need of major repairs and problems with mould were reported in 20% of households.
Adequate shelter is a basic human need and an essential foundation for thriving population health. The results indicate that improvements in housing indicators are needed. Of utmost concern is the high prevalence of overcrowding in Inuit homes with children, which poses potential consequences for children's health and well-being. Further, the high percentage of homes providing shelter to the homeless suggests that hidden homelessness needs to be addressed by further research and program implementation.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):444-622208993
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):447-922208994
PubMed ID
22152596 View in PubMed
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Prevalence of affirmative responses to questions of food insecurity: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey, 2007-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130409
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):488-97
Publication Type
Article
Date
2011
Author
Renata Rosol
Catherine Huet
Michele Wood
Crystal Lennie
Geraldine Osborne
Grace M Egeland
Author Affiliation
Centre for Indigenous Peoples' Nutrition and Environment (CINE), School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, Macdonald Campus, McGill University, Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec, H9X 3V9, Canada.
Source
Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):488-97
Date
2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Aged
Arctic Regions - epidemiology
Canada - epidemiology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Food Deprivation
Food Habits - ethnology
Food Supply - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Inuits - psychology - statistics & numerical data
Male
Malnutrition - ethnology - prevention & control
Middle Aged
Nutritional Status
Population Surveillance
Poverty - ethnology
Prevalence
Socioeconomic Factors
Starvation - ethnology - prevention & control
Abstract
Assess the prevalence of food insecurity by region among Inuit households in the Canadian Arctic.
A community-participatory, cross-sectional Inuit health survey conducted through face-to-face interviews.
A quantitative household food security questionnaire was conducted with a random sample of 2,595 self-identified Inuit adults aged 18 years and older, from 36 communities located in 3 jurisdictions (Inuvialuit Settlement Region; Nunavut; Nunatsiavut Region) during the period from 2007 to 2008. Weighted prevalence of levels of adult and household food insecurity was calculated.
Differences in the prevalence of household food insecurity were noted by region, with Nunavut having the highest prevalence of food insecurity (68.8%), significantly higher than that observed in Inuvialuit Settlement Region (43.3%) and Nunatsiavut Region (45.7%) (p=0.01). Adults living in households rated as severely food insecure reported times in the past year when they or other adults in the household had skipped meals (88.6%), gone hungry (76.9%) or not eaten for a whole day (58.2%). Adults living in households rated as moderately food insecure reported times in the past year when they worried that food would run out (86.5%) and when the food did not last and there was no money to buy more (87.8%).
A high level of food insecurity was reported among Inuit adults residing in the Canadian Arctic, particularly for Nunavut. Immediate action and meaningful interventions are needed to mitigate the negative health impacts of food insecurity and ensure a healthy Inuit population.
Notes
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):447-922208994
Comment In: Int J Circumpolar Health. 2011;70(5):444-622208993
PubMed ID
22005728 View in PubMed
Less detail

Y-chromosome analysis reveals genetic divergence and new founding native lineages in Athapaskan- and Eskimoan-speaking populations.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature124395
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8471-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-29-2012
Author
Matthew C Dulik
Amanda C Owings
Jill B Gaieski
Miguel G Vilar
Alestine Andre
Crystal Lennie
Mary Adele Mackenzie
Ingrid Kritsch
Sharon Snowshoe
Ruth Wright
James Martin
Nancy Gibson
Thomas D Andrews
Theodore G Schurr
Author Affiliation
Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6398, USA.
Source
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 29;109(22):8471-6
Date
May-29-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada
Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 - genetics
Chromosomes, Human, Y - genetics
Emigration and Immigration
Gene Frequency
Genetic Variation
Genetics, Population - methods
Genotype
Geography
Haplotypes - genetics
Humans
Indians, North American - genetics
Inuits - genetics
Male
Microsatellite Repeats - genetics
Mutation
Mutation Rate
Phylogeny
Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
Abstract
For decades, the peopling of the Americas has been explored through the analysis of uniparentally inherited genetic systems in Native American populations and the comparison of these genetic data with current linguistic groupings. In northern North America, two language families predominate: Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene. Although the genetic evidence from nuclear and mtDNA loci suggest that speakers of these language families share a distinct biological origin, this model has not been examined using data from paternally inherited Y chromosomes. To test this hypothesis and elucidate the migration histories of Eskimoan- and Athapaskan-speaking populations, we analyzed Y-chromosomal data from Inuvialuit, Gwich'in, and Tlich populations living in the Northwest Territories of Canada. Over 100 biallelic markers and 19 chromosome short tandem repeats (STRs) were genotyped to produce a high-resolution dataset of Y chromosomes from these groups. Among these markers is an SNP discovered in the Inuvialuit that differentiates them from other Aboriginal and Native American populations. The data suggest that Canadian Eskimoan- and Athapaskan-speaking populations are genetically distinct from one another and that the formation of these groups was the result of two population expansions that occurred after the initial movement of people into the Americas. In addition, the population history of Athapaskan speakers is complex, with the Tlich being distinct from other Athapaskan groups. The high-resolution biallelic data also make clear that Y-chromosomal diversity among the first Native Americans was greater than previously recognized.
Notes
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PubMed ID
22586127 View in PubMed
Less detail