Skip header and navigation

Refine By

11 records – page 1 of 2.

Availability and estimates of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature180106
Source
Can Vet J. 2004 Apr;45(4):309-11
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2004
Author
Erin Fraser
Craig Stephen
William R Bowie
Mervyn Wetzstein
Author Affiliation
Centre for Coastal Health, 900 5th Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia V9R 5S5.
Source
Can Vet J. 2004 Apr;45(4):309-11
Date
Apr-2004
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anti-Bacterial Agents - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Bacteria - drug effects
British Columbia
Drug Resistance, Bacterial
Humans
Legislation, Veterinary
Microbial Sensitivity Tests - veterinary
Risk factors
Veterinary Drugs - administration & dosage - therapeutic use
Abstract
The amount of antimicrobial use is a significant selection pressure that alters the frequency of antimicrobial resistance. This paper summarizes attempts to estimate the weight of antimicrobial purchases in British Columbia for use in animals. The data reported here do not capture all sources of veterinary antimicrobial use in British Columbia. This paper highlights how information deficits on veterinary drug use complicate the development of an evidence-based policy framework for combating antimicrobial resistance.
Notes
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 1999 May-Jun;5(3):329-3510341169
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1998 Feb;36(2):437-429466754
Cites: Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000 Nov;16 Suppl 1:S19-2411137404
Cites: Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2000 May;14(4):327-3510794955
Comment In: Can Vet J. 2004 Aug;45(8):639; author reply 64015368736
PubMed ID
15144102 View in PubMed
Less detail

Descriptive epidemiology of detected anthrax outbreaks in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in northern Canada, 1962-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature260989
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Jul;50(3):459-68
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jul-2014
Author
Amanda Salb
Craig Stephen
Carl Ribble
Brett Elkin
Source
J Wildl Dis. 2014 Jul;50(3):459-68
Date
Jul-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anthrax - epidemiology - veterinary
Bison
Canada - epidemiology
Disease Outbreaks - veterinary
Female
Male
Time Factors
Abstract
We inventoried and assessed historical anthrax outbreak data from 1962-2008 in wild wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) in Wood Buffalo National Park and the Slave River Lowlands (SRL), Northwest Territories, Canada. We compared these results with a 2010 outbreak in the SRL. Anthrax outbreaks have occurred in 12 of the years between 1962 and 2008 in wild wood bison with 1,515 anthrax deaths detected. The average number of carcasses found each outbreak year was 126 (range 1-363), though local averages varied. The numbers of animals found dead per outbreak declined over the past four decades. Outbreaks varied in duration from 16-44 days (average length 25.5 days). The length of an outbreak was not a determinant of the number of dead bison found, but outbreaks starting in July had more deaths than those staring in June. Males were more likely to be detected in an outbreak, outbreaks were likely not random events, and there was no relationship between outbreak size or length and location. Future surveillance activities may benefit from targeting bulls and planning surveillance activities for more than 3 wk after outbreak detection. Coordinating data collecting and recording efforts between jurisdictions may overcome historical challenges in inconsistent record keeping.
PubMed ID
24779457 View in PubMed
Less detail

A focused ethnographic study of Alberta cattle veterinarians' decision making about diagnostic laboratory submissions and perceptions of surveillance programs.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature113310
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e64811
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Kate Sawford
Ardene Robinson Vollman
Craig Stephen
Author Affiliation
Farm Animal & Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Camden, New South Wales, Australia. kate.sawford@sydney.edu.au
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e64811
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta
Animal Diseases - diagnosis
Animals
Anthropology, Cultural
Cattle
Clinical Laboratory Services
Decision Making
Female
Humans
Interviews as Topic
Male
Perception
Population Surveillance
Questionnaires
Veterinarians - psychology
Abstract
The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.
Notes
Cites: J Public Health Manag Pract. 2000 Jan;6(1):78-8610724697
Cites: PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e4803523133542
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Jul 29;356(1411):983-911516376
Cites: Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2001 Jul 29;356(1411):1097-10611516387
Cites: J Public Health Manag Pract. 2001 Nov;7(6):51-911710168
Cites: J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Jan;71(1):16-3211781377
Cites: Rev Sci Tech. 2002 Dec;21(3):699-71012523708
Cites: Health Promot Int. 2003 Jun;18(2):89-9812746380
Cites: Nurse Educ Today. 2004 Feb;24(2):105-1214769454
Cites: Rev Sci Tech. 1993 Dec;12(4):1187-968312620
Cites: J Vet Diagn Invest. 1994 Apr;6(2):269-718068765
Cites: Am J Health Promot. 1996 Mar-Apr;10(4):270-8110159708
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 1997 Apr-Jun;3(2):83-949204289
Cites: J Public Health Manag Pract. 1996 Fall;2(4):58-6010186699
Cites: Vet Rec. 2004 Nov 27;155(22):701-715605537
Cites: Sex Health. 2005;2(2):97-10216335746
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Dec;11(12):1842-716485468
Cites: Rev Sci Tech. 2006 Apr;25(1):375-8816796062
Cites: Health Serv Manage Res. 2007 Nov;20(4):211-917958966
Cites: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007 Nov 15;231(10):1510-818020992
Cites: Crit Rev Microbiol. 2007;33(4):243-9918033595
Cites: Vet Rec. 2008 Jun 14;162(24):771-618552327
Cites: Vet Rec. 2008 Nov 1;163(18):531-518978365
Cites: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2008 Nov 15;233(10):1556-6219014288
Cites: Ecohealth. 2009 Mar;6(1):1-219760325
Cites: Transbound Emerg Dis. 2010 Dec;57(6):414-920846188
Cites: Can J Vet Res. 2010 Oct;74(4):241-5121197223
Cites: J Vet Diagn Invest. 2011 Jan;23(1):26-3321217024
Cites: Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011 Mar;17(3):326-3021129102
Cites: Trends Parasitol. 2001 Jul;17(7):325-3011423375
PubMed ID
23741397 View in PubMed
Less detail

Multispecies outbreak of cryptococcosis on southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature188034
Source
Can Vet J. 2002 Oct;43(10):792-4
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2002

Notes on the distribution of mosquito species that could potentially transmit West Nile virus on Vancouver Island, British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature166872
Source
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006 Sep;22(3):553-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2006
Author
Craig Stephen
Nadia Plamondon
Peter Belton
Author Affiliation
Centre for Coastal Health, Malaspina University College, Nanaimo, Canada.
Source
J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2006 Sep;22(3):553-6
Date
Sep-2006
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Aedes
Animals
Anopheles
British Columbia
Culicidae - virology
Humans
Insect Vectors - virology
Larva
Population Surveillance
West Nile Fever - transmission
West Nile virus
Abstract
We record the spatial and temporal distribution of 8 potential vectors of West Nile virus (WNV) on Vancouver Island in 2003 and 2004. Five species were widely distributed, but the other 3 were restricted to specific larval habitats. Adults were trapped from early April to September. The findings indicate a potential for WNV transmission if the virus arrives on the island. The results extend the published range of 5 mosquito species.
PubMed ID
17067062 View in PubMed
Less detail

Perspectives on emerging zoonotic disease research and capacity building in Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature175794
Source
Can Vet J. 2005 Jan;46(1):65-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-2005
Author
Craig Stephen
Harvey Artsob
William R Bowie
Michael Drebot
Erin Fraser
Ted Leighton
Muhammad Morshed
Corinne Ong
David Patrick
Author Affiliation
Animal Determinants of Emerging Disease Research Unit, Centre for Coastal Health, 900 Fifth Street, Nanaimo, British Columbia V9R 5S5. cch@mala.bc.ca
Source
Can Vet J. 2005 Jan;46(1):65-71
Date
Jan-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Canada
Communicable Diseases, Emerging - diagnosis - prevention & control - transmission - veterinary
Humans
Interdisciplinary Communication
Population Surveillance
Public Health
Research
Zoonoses
Abstract
Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread. Emerging infectious disease research should rest on four pillars: enhanced communications across disciplinary and agency boundaries; the assessment and development of surveillance and disease detection tools; the examination of linkages between animal health determinants of human health outcomes; and finally, cross-disciplinary training and research. A national strategy to predict, prevent and manage emerging diseases must have a prominent and explicit role for veterinary and biological researchers. An integrated health approach would provide decision makers with a firmer foundation from which to build evidence-based disease prevention and control plans that involve complex human/animal/environmental systems, and would serve as the foundation to train and support the new cadre of individuals ultimately needed to maintain and apply research capacity in this area.
PubMed ID
15759832 View in PubMed
Less detail

Preliminary investigation of bird and human movements and disease-management practices in noncommercial poultry flocks in southwestern British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130286
Source
Avian Dis. 2011 Sep;55(3):350-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Sep-2011
Author
Theresa E Burns
David Kelton
Carl Ribble
Craig Stephen
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, 21 Stone Road, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1, Canada. theresa_burns@hotmail.com
Source
Avian Dis. 2011 Sep;55(3):350-7
Date
Sep-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Anseriformes
British Columbia - epidemiology
Dromaiidae
Female
Galliformes
Health status
Humans
Influenza A virus
Influenza in Birds - epidemiology - transmission
Interviews as Topic
Male
Poultry Diseases - epidemiology - transmission
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Abstract
Understanding normal movement patterns and husbandry practices of poultry production systems is important for understanding the dynamics of disease spread, and for controlling outbreaks of highly infectious diseases, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza. To learn about these patterns in the noncommercial or "backyard" poultry-keeping sector, an open-ended questionnaire was administered to 18 backyard-flock owners in British Columbia, Canada, and responses were analyzed descriptively. Six participants reported that they visited premises that were part of the commercial poultry system in the last year; however, bird movements between commercial and noncommercial farms were always unidirectional, from commercial to backyard. Bird movements into and out of participants' flocks occurred multiple times per month (two flocks), three times per year (five flocks), once or twice a year (nine flocks) and every 3-5 yr (two flocks). Visitors had direct contact with three participants' flocks multiple times per week; for other flocks, visitors had direct contact three times or less per year. Fourteen participants rarely had direct contact with other backyard flocks, three had contact more than once per week, and one had contact every 3 mo. Participants stated that the health of their birds was excellent (7), very good (3), good (6), O.K. (1), and all right (1), and used a median of two biosecurity practices to maintain health in their flock. Our findings suggest that bird movements are not likely to transmit disease from backyard to commercial flocks; however, human movements between backyard and commercial premises could transmit diseases. Within the backyard-flock sector, the majority of small flocks appear to pose little risk of disease transmission because they are maintained in semi-isolation from other flocks; however, a minority of flocks has high contact levels with other flocks and could be important in disease spread.
PubMed ID
22017030 View in PubMed
Less detail

Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization in horses in Saskatchewan, Alberta, and British Columbia.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature145720
Source
Can Vet J. 2009 Nov;50(11):1177-80
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2009
Author
Nathalie Tokateloff
Stephen T Manning
J Scott Weese
John Campbell
Jamie Rothenburger
Craig Stephen
Vanessa Bastura
Sheryl P Gow
Richard Reid-Smith
Author Affiliation
Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan.
Source
Can Vet J. 2009 Nov;50(11):1177-80
Date
Nov-2009
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Alberta - epidemiology
Animals
British Columbia - epidemiology
Carrier State - microbiology - transmission - veterinary
Female
Horse Diseases - epidemiology - microbiology
Horses
Humans
Male
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus - drug effects - growth & development
Nasal Cavity - microbiology
Prevalence
Saskatchewan - epidemiology
Staphylococcal Infections - epidemiology - microbiology - veterinary
Zoonoses
Abstract
This study estimated the prevalence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in nasal swabs of 458 horses in western Canada. The rate of colonization was 1.3% +/- 5.84% [95% confidence interval (CI)], a rate similar to those reported elsewhere. Colonization tended to be transient and seemed unrelated to stress or administration of antimicrobials. Five of the 6 isolates were Canadian epidemic MRSA-5, a human clone that appears to predominate in horses in North America. The other isolate was spa type 539 (t034), a sequence type 398 strain, and this is the first report of this clone in horses in North America. Surveillance is warranted because of the potential of MRSA to cause disease in horses and humans.
Notes
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Oct;39(10):3481-511574559
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2008 Apr 30;128(3-4):298-30318023542
Cites: J Vet Intern Med. 2004 Jul-Aug;18(4):468-7015320581
Cites: J Vet Med Sci. 1997 Oct;59(10):935-79362045
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1999 May;37(5):1459-6310203505
Cites: J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Nov;37(11):3556-6310523551
Cites: Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract. 2004 Dec;20(3):601-1315519821
Cites: J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005 Feb 15;226(4):580-315742700
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 Mar;11(3):430-515757559
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2005 May;11(5):711-415890125
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2005 Jun 15;108(1-2):145-815917142
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2005 Aug 30;109(3-4):285-9616026939
Cites: Equine Vet J. 2005 Nov;37(6):510-416295927
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2006 Mar 10;113(1-2):131-616303264
Cites: J Vet Intern Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;20(1):182-616496939
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2006 Apr 16;114(1-2):160-416384660
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2006 Jun 15;115(1-3):148-5516464540
Cites: Lancet. 2006 Sep 2;368(9538):874-8516950365
Cites: Euro Surveill. 2006;11(1):44-716484728
Cites: Lett Appl Microbiol. 2006 Dec;43(6):602-617083704
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2007 Apr 15;121(3-4):307-1517270365
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Feb;13(2):255-817479888
Cites: Vet Microbiol. 2007 Jun 21;122(3-4):366-7217367960
Cites: Can Vet J. 2007 Sep;48(9):921-617966332
Cites: Vet J. 2008 Jan;175(1):27-3617215151
Cites: Emerg Infect Dis. 2007 Dec;13(12):1834-918258032
Cites: Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003 Nov;69(11):6489-9414602604
PubMed ID
20119542 View in PubMed
Less detail

Serological and molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii in terrestrial and marine wildlife harvested for food in Nunavik, Canada.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299262
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2019 Apr 03; 12(1):155
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Apr-03-2019
Author
Nicholas Bachand
André Ravel
Patrick Leighton
Craig Stephen
Momar Ndao
Ellen Avard
Emily Jenkins
Author Affiliation
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, S7H 5B4, Canada. nickbachand@gmail.com.
Source
Parasit Vectors. 2019 Apr 03; 12(1):155
Date
Apr-03-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Animals
Animals, Wild - parasitology
Canada
Cross-Sectional Studies
DNA, Protozoan
Female
Food Parasitology
Galliformes - parasitology
Geese - parasitology
Male
Molecular Typing
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
Reindeer - parasitology
Seals, Earless - parasitology
Serotyping
Toxoplasma - classification - isolation & purification
Walruses - parasitology
Abstract
Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic protozoan parasite, infects mammals and birds worldwide. Infection in humans is often asymptomatic, though illnesses can occur in immunocompromised hosts and the fetuses of susceptible women infected during pregnancy. In Nunavik, Canada, 60% of the Inuit population has measurable antibodies against T. gondii. Handling and consumption of wildlife have been identified as risk factors for exposure. Serological evidence of exposure has been reported for wildlife in Nunavik; however, T. gondii has not been detected in wildlife tissues commonly consumed by Inuit.
We used a magnetic capture DNA extraction and real-time PCR protocol to extract and amplify T. gondii DNA from large quantities of tissues (up to 100 g) of 441 individual animals in Nunavik: 166 ptarmigan (Lagopus lagopus), 156 geese (Branta canadensis and Chen caerulescens), 61 ringed seals (Pusa hispida), 31 caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and 27 walruses (Odobenus rosmarus).
DNA from T. gondii was detected in 9% (95% CI: 3-15%) of geese from four communities in western and southern Nunavik, but DNA was not detected in other wildlife species including 20% (95% CI: 12-31%) of ringed seals and 26% (95% CI: 14-43%) of caribou positive on a commercial modified agglutination test (MAT) using thawed heart muscle juice. In geese, tissue parasite burden was highest in heart, followed by brain, breast muscle, liver and gizzard. Serological results did not correlate well with tissue infection status for any wildlife species.
To our knowledge, this is the first report on the detection, quantification, and characterization of DNA of T. gondii (clonal lineage II in one goose) from wildlife harvested for food in Nunavik, which supports the hypothesis that migratory geese can carry T. gondii into Nunavik where feline definitive hosts are rare. This study suggests that direct detection methods may be useful for detection of T. gondii in wildlife harvested for human consumption and provides data needed for a quantitative exposure assessment that will determine the risk of T. gondii exposure for Inuit who harvest and consume geese in Nunavik.
PubMed ID
30944016 View in PubMed
Less detail

Using expert informed GIS to locate important marine social-ecological hotspots.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261728
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Apr 9;
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-9-2015
Author
Pouyan Mahboubi
Margot Parkes
Craig Stephen
Hing Man Chan
Source
J Environ Manage. 2015 Apr 9;
Date
Apr-9-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
The marine environment provides significant benefits to many local communities. Pressure to develop coastal waterways worldwide creates an urgent need for tools to locate marine spaces that have important social or ecological values, and to quantify their relative importance. The primary objective of this study was to develop, apply and critically assess a tool to identify important social-ecological hotspots in the marine environment. The study was conducted in a typical coastal community in northern British Columbia, Canada. This expert-informed GIS, or xGIS, tool used a survey instrument to draw on the knowledge of local experts from a range of backgrounds with respect to a series of 12 social-ecological value attributes, such as biodiversity, cultural and economic values. We identified approximately 1500 polygons on marine maps and assigned relative values to them using a token distribution exercise. A series of spatial statistical analyses were performed to locate and quantify the relative social-ecological importance of marine spaces and the results were ultimately summarized in a single hotspot map of the entire study area. This study demonstrates the utility of xGIS as a useful tool for stakeholders and environmental managers engaged in the planning and management of marine resources at the local and regional levels.
PubMed ID
25864941 View in PubMed
Less detail

11 records – page 1 of 2.