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Adolescence risk factors are predictive of coronary artery calcification at middle age: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature120679
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1364-70
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-9-2012
Author
Olli Hartiala
Costan G Magnussen
Sami Kajander
Juhani Knuuti
Heikki Ukkonen
Antti Saraste
Irina Rinta-Kiikka
Sakari Kainulainen
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Tomi Laitinen
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Jaakko Hartiala
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, and Turku PET Center, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland. olli.hartiala@utu.fi
Source
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1364-70
Date
Oct-9-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Calcinosis - complications - diagnosis - epidemiology
Child
Child, Preschool
Coronary Artery Disease - epidemiology - etiology - pathology
Coronary Vessels - pathology
Cross-Sectional Studies
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Male
Middle Aged
Prognosis
Retrospective Studies
Risk Assessment - methods
Time Factors
Young Adult
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the roles of adolescence risk factors in predicting coronary artery calcium (CAC).
Elevated coronary heart disease risk factor levels in adolescence may predict subsequent CAC independently of change in risk factor levels from adolescence to adulthood.
CAC was assessed in 589 subjects 40 to 46 years of age from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Risk factor levels were measured in 1980 (12 to 18 years) and in 2007.
The prevalence of any CAC was 19.2% (27.9% in men and 12.2% in women). Age, levels of systolic blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in adolescence, as well as systolic BP, total cholesterol, diastolic BP, and pack-years of smoking in adulthood were higher among subjects with CAC than those without CAC. Adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels predicted CAC in adulthood independently of 27-year changes in these risk factors. The multivariable odds ratios were 1.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 1.70; p=0.02) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 1.77; p=0.01), for 1-SD increase in adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP, respectively. Exposure to both of these risk factors in adolescence (defined as values at or above the age- and sex-specific 75th percentile) substantially increased the risk of CAC (multivariable odds ratio: 3.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 7.2; p=0.007]) between groups with no versus both risk factors.
Elevated adolescence LDL-C and systolic BP levels are independent predictors of adulthood CAC, indicating that adolescence risk factor levels play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease.
Notes
Comment In: J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012 Oct 9;60(15):1371-322981554
PubMed ID
22981553 View in PubMed
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Adult dyslipidemia prediction is improved by repeated measurements in childhood and young adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature268337
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2015 Apr;239(2):350-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2015
Author
Joel Nuotio
Mervi Oikonen
Costan G Magnussen
Jorma S A Viikari
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Antti Jula
Russell Thomson
Matthew A Sabin
Stephen R Daniels
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Source
Atherosclerosis. 2015 Apr;239(2):350-7
Date
Apr-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Atherosclerosis - blood - physiopathology
Body mass index
Cardiovascular Diseases - blood - physiopathology
Child
Child, Preschool
Dyslipidemias - blood - physiopathology
Female
Finland
Humans
Lipids - blood - chemistry
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Predictive value of tests
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Prediction of adult dyslipidemia has been suggested to improve with multiple measurements in childhood or young adulthood, but there is paucity of specific data from longitudinal studies.
The sample comprised 1912 subjects (54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had fasting lipid and lipoprotein measurements collected at three time-points in childhood/young adulthood and had at least one follow-up in later adulthood. Childhood/young adult dyslipidemia was defined as total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) or triglycerides (TG) in the highest quintile, or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in the lowest quintile. Adult dyslipidemia was defined according to European cut-points (TC > 5.0 mmol/L, LDL-C >3 mmol/L, Non-HDL-C >3.8 mmol/L, HDL-C  1.7 mmol/L). With the exception of triglycerides, Pearson correlation coefficients for predicting adult levels significantly improved when two lipid or lipoprotein measurements in childhood/young adulthood were compared with one measurement (all P 
PubMed ID
25682034 View in PubMed
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Apolipoprotein B, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and LDL particle size in predicting the incidence of metabolic syndrome: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature130840
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012 Dec;19(6):1296-303
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2012
Author
Juha Koskinen
Costan G Magnussen
Peter Würtz
Pasi Soininen
Antti J Kangas
Jorma Sa Viikari
Mika Kähönen
Britt-Marie Loo
Antti Jula
Markku Ahotupa
Terho Lehtimäki
Mika Ala-Korpela
Markus Juonala
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, Turku, Finland. jkkosk@utu.fi
Source
Eur J Prev Cardiol. 2012 Dec;19(6):1296-303
Date
Dec-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Apolipoprotein A-I - blood
Apolipoproteins B - blood
Biological Markers - blood
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Incidence
Lipoproteins, LDL - blood
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - blood - epidemiology
Odds Ratio
Particle Size
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Abstract
To test whether serum apolipoprotein B (apoB) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle characteristics (oxidation and mean particle size) predict the incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS).
The 6-year follow-up study included 1429 adults (baseline mean age 31.5). Lipids, apoB, and apoA1 were measured at baseline in 2001. LDL oxidation was measured with monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (oxLDL-prot) and with a method measuring oxidized lipids in LDL (oxLDL-lipids). Mean LDL particle size was calculated from proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data.
Increased concentrations of both oxLDL-measures were associated with increased apoB levels but not with LDL particle size. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for MetS incidence during a 6-year follow up by quartiles of apoB were 2.0 (1.0-3.8) for the second quartile, 3.1 (1.7-5.7) for the third quartile, and 4.2 (2.3-7.6) for the fourth quartile. This association remained after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, C-reactive protein, smoking, LDL cholesterol, oxidized LDL measures (p?=?0.01) in addition to risk factors comprising the MetS (p?=?0.03). OxLDL-prot and oxLDL-lipids levels were not independently associated with incident MetS after adjusting for apoB. Mean LDL particle size was not associated with the incidence of MetS.
ApoB is associated with increased risk of MetS incidence. We found no clear evidence to suggest that increased LDL oxidation or small mean LDL particle size would facilitate the development of MetS.
PubMed ID
21960651 View in PubMed
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Arterial structure and function after recovery from the metabolic syndrome: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature146140
Source
Circulation. 2010 Jan 26;121(3):392-400
Publication Type
Article
Date
Jan-26-2010
Author
Juha Koskinen
Costan G Magnussen
Leena Taittonen
Leena Räsänen
Vera Mikkilä
Tomi Laitinen
Tapani Rönnemaa
Mika Kähönen
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, FI-20520, Finland. jkkosk@utu.fi
Source
Circulation. 2010 Jan 26;121(3):392-400
Date
Jan-26-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Brachial Artery - physiology
Carotid Arteries - physiology - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - epidemiology - prevention & control - ultrasonography
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Life Style
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - epidemiology - therapy
Regional Blood Flow - physiology
Remission, Spontaneous
Risk factors
Risk Reduction Behavior
Tunica Intima - ultrasonography
Tunica Media - ultrasonography
Abstract
The reversibility of ultrasonographic vascular changes associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) recovery is unknown. We examined whether spontaneous recovery from MetS (according to the International Diabetes Federation definition) has a favorable effect on vascular properties and evaluated the associations between lifestyle factors and MetS recovery.
We measured carotid artery intima-media thickness, distensibility, and brachial flow-mediated dilatation by ultrasound in 1673 subjects of the Young Finns Study cohort (age, 31.5+/-5.0 years in 2001) who participated in follow-up studies in 2001 and 2007. At baseline, no differences in intima-media thickness, carotid artery distensibility, or flow-mediated dilatation were observed between the recovery group (baseline-only MetS) and those with incident (only at follow-up) or persistent (both at baseline and follow-up) MetS. After 6 years, the recovery group had smaller intima-media thickness (mean+/-SEM, 0.62+/-0.01 versus 0.68+/-0.01 mm; P=0.0009) and higher carotid artery distensibility (1.98+/-0.07%/mm Hg versus 1.56+/-0.04%/mm Hg; P=0.001) compared with the persistent group and higher flow-mediated dilatation compared with the control group (9.91+/-0.51% versus 8.57+/-0.12%; P=0.03). The recovery group had reduced intima-media thickness progression compared with the persistent group (0.036+/-0.005 versus 0.079+/-0.010 mm; P=0.001) and reduced carotid artery distensibility change compared with the incident group (-0.12+/-0.05%/mm Hg versus -0.38+/-0.10%/mm Hg; P=0.03) over the 6-year follow-up. Differences in carotid artery distensibility levels were attenuated (P=0.11) after the inclusion of weight change in the models. MetS recovery was paralleled with significant reductions in waist circumference that independently correlated with increased physical activity and increased attention paid to health habits during the follow-up.
Recovery from the MetS was associated with positive effects on vascular properties during a 6-year follow-up period of young adults.
PubMed ID
20065161 View in PubMed
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Association of liver enzymes with metabolic syndrome and carotid atherosclerosis in young adults. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature137714
Source
Ann Med. 2012 Mar;44(2):187-95
Publication Type
Article
Date
Mar-2012
Author
Juha Koskinen
Costan G Magnussen
Mika Kähönen
Britt-Marie Loo
Jukka Marniemi
Antti Jula
Liisa A Saarikoski
Risto Huupponen
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, Turku, Finland. jkkosk@utu.fi
Source
Ann Med. 2012 Mar;44(2):187-95
Date
Mar-2012
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alanine Transaminase - metabolism
Atherosclerosis - etiology
Biological Markers - metabolism
Carotid Arteries - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - etiology
Carotid Intima-Media Thickness
Fatty Liver - etiology
Female
Finland
Humans
Liver - enzymology
Male
Metabolic Syndrome X - complications - enzymology
Risk
Risk factors
Tunica Intima - ultrasonography
gamma-Glutamyltransferase - metabolism
Abstract
We examined whether metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts increased alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels in young adults, whether spontaneous recovery from MetS has a favorable effect on liver enzyme activities, and whether these enzymes contribute to the atherogenicity of MetS (assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (IMT)).
The study included 1,553 subjects (base-line age 31.5 ± 5.0 years). ALT and GGT were measured in 2007. MetS was diagnosed by the new Joint Interim Societies definition.
ALT and GGT levels were higher in subjects with MetS compared to those without in 2007. The association was independent of alcohol intake and BMI. In multivariable models adjusted for base-line age, LDL cholesterol, CRP, alcohol intake, and adiponectin, MetS in 2001 predicted increased ALT (ß ± SEM = 0.320 ± 0.062, P
PubMed ID
21254896 View in PubMed
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Association of physical activity in childhood and early adulthood with carotid artery elasticity 21 years later: the cardiovascular risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258279
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(2):e000594
Publication Type
Article
Date
2014
Author
Kristiina S Pälve
Katja Pahkala
Costan G Magnussen
Teemu Koivistoinen
Markus Juonala
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Tapani Rönnemaa
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
Source
J Am Heart Assoc. 2014;3(2):e000594
Date
2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adolescent Behavior
Adult
Age Factors
Carotid Arteries - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery Diseases - diagnosis - epidemiology - physiopathology
Child
Child Behavior
Elastic Modulus
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Health Behavior
Humans
Longitudinal Studies
Male
Middle Aged
Motor Activity
Prospective Studies
Questionnaires
Risk factors
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Vascular Stiffness
Young Adult
Abstract
Decreased arterial elasticity is a risk factor for several cardiovascular outcomes. Longitudinal data on the effect of physical activity in youth on adult arterial elasticity are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of physical activity in children and young adults on carotid artery elasticity after 21 years of follow-up.
Participants were 1417 children (aged 9 to 15 years) and 999 young adults (aged 18 to 24 years) from the prospective Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Participants had questionnaire measures of leisure-time physical activity available from 1986 and ultrasound-derived indices of carotid artery elasticity measured in 2007. Carotid artery elasticity indices were distensibility (%/10 mm Hg), Young's elastic modulus (kPa), and stiffness index (unitless). Physical activity at age 18 to 24 years was directly associated with distensibility (ß=0.068, P=0.014) and inversely with Young's elastic modulus (ß=-0.057, P=0.0037) and indirectly with stiffness index (ß=-0.050, P=0.0028) 21 years later in males and females. The associations remained after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum lipids and insulin, and 21-year change in physical activity. At age 9 to 15 years, the favorable association, remaining after adjustment, was found in males (distensibility [ß=0.097, P=0.010], Young's elastic modulus [ß=-0.060, P=0.028], and stiffness index [ß=-0.062, P=0.007]) but not in females (P=0.70, P=0.85, and P=0.91, respectively).
Leisure-time physical activity in boys and young adults is associated with carotid artery elasticity later in life, suggesting that higher levels of physical activity in youth may benefit future cardiovascular health.
Notes
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PubMed ID
24755150 View in PubMed
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Both youth and long-term vitamin D status is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adulthood: a cohort study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature301194
Source
Ann Med. 2018 02; 50(1):74-82
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
02-2018
Author
Feitong Wu
Markus Juonala
Niina Pitkänen
Antti Jula
Terho Lehtimäki
Matthew A Sabin
Katja Pahkala
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Tomi Laitinen
Jorma S A Viikari
Costan G Magnussen
Olli T Raitakari
Author Affiliation
a Menzies Institute for Medical Research , University of Tasmania , Hobart , TAS , Australia.
Source
Ann Med. 2018 02; 50(1):74-82
Date
02-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Multicenter Study
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adolescent
Child
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - blood - epidemiology - etiology - prevention & control
Fasting
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Humans
Incidence
Male
Prediabetic State - blood - epidemiology
Risk factors
Vitamin D - analogs & derivatives - blood
Abstract
To determine whether vitamin D status in childhood and adolescence (herein collectively referred to as youth) and the long-term status from youth to adulthood is associated with risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in adulthood.
This was a 31-year follow-up study of 2300 participants aged 3-18 years. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association of both (a) baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) levels and (b) the mean of baseline and the latest follow-up 25OHD levels (continuous variable and quartiles) with incident T2DM and IFG (cut-off?=?5.6?mmol/L) in adult life.
High serum 25OHD levels in youth and also mean values from youth to adulthood were associated with reduced risk of developing T2DM in adulthood (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=?0.73, 0.57-0.95 and 0.65, 0.51-0.84, respectively, for each SD increment in 25OHD). Compared to Q1, a dose-dependent negative association was observed across other quartiles of youth 25OHD, while the strongest association was found in the Q3 for the mean 25OHD levels. Neither youth nor the mean 25OHD was associated with IFG.
High serum 25OHD levels in youth, and from child to adult life, were associated with a reduced risk of developing T2DM in adulthood. Key Messages High serum 25OHD levels in youth, and between youth and adulthood, were associated with a lower risk of T2DM in adulthood. Each SD (15.2?nmol/L) increment in youth serum 25OHD levels was associated with a 26% reduction in odds for T2DM, which was independent of a number of confounding variables and other risk factors for T2DM. A similar magnitude of association was observed for the long-term 25OHD levels between youth and adulthood. These findings suggest a potentially simple and cost-effective strategy for reducing adulthood risk of T2DM starting in an earlier stage of life - improving and maintaining vitamin D status throughout youth and early adulthood.
PubMed ID
29113496 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk factors in 2011 and secular trends since 2007: the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature261572
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Nov;42(7):563-71
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Joel Nuotio
Mervi Oikonen
Costan G Magnussen
Eero Jokinen
Tomi Laitinen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Mika Kähönen
Terho Lehtimäki
Leena Taittonen
Päivi Tossavainen
Antti Jula
Britt-Marie Loo
Jorma Sa Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Source
Scand J Public Health. 2014 Nov;42(7):563-71
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Blood pressure
Cardiovascular Diseases - epidemiology
Female
Finland - epidemiology
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Risk factors
Sex Distribution
Triglycerides - blood
Waist Circumference
Abstract
Cardiovascular risk factor levels in 2011 and 4-year changes between 2007 and 2011 were examined using data collected in follow-ups of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.
The study population comprised 2063 Finnish adults aged 34-49 years (45% male). Lipid and blood pressure levels, glucose and anthropometry were measured and life style risk factors examined with questionnaires.
Mean total cholesterol level in 2011 was 5.19 mmol/l, low density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol 3.27 mmol/l, high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol 1.33 mmol/l, and triglycerides 1.34 mmol/l. Using American Diabetes Association criteria, Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was observed in 4.1% and prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/l or glycated hemoglobin 5.7-6.4%) diagnosed for 33.8% of the participants. Significant changes (P
PubMed ID
25053467 View in PubMed
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Cardiovascular risk scores in the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults: evidence from the cardiovascular risk in a young Finns study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature144567
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010 Oct;17(5):549-55
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2010
Author
Juho R H Raiko
Costan G Magnussen
Mika Kivimäki
Leena Taittonen
Tomi Laitinen
Mika Kähönen
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Antti Jula
Britt-Marie Loo
Russell J Thomson
Terho Lehtimäki
Jorma S A Viikari
Olli T Raitakari
Markus Juonala
Author Affiliation
Research Center of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku and Turku University Hospital dFinnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland. juho.raiko@utu.fi
Source
Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2010 Oct;17(5):549-55
Date
Oct-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Age Factors
Asymptomatic Diseases
Atherosclerosis - diagnosis - etiology - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Brachial Artery - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Cardiovascular Diseases - etiology
Carotid Arteries - ultrasonography
Carotid Artery, Common - physiopathology - ultrasonography
Elasticity
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Logistic Models
Predictive value of tests
Risk assessment
Risk factors
Time Factors
Tunica Intima - ultrasonography
Tunica Media - ultrasonography
Vasodilation
Young Adult
Abstract
To study the utility of risk scores in the prediction of subclinical atherosclerosis in young adults.
Participants were 2204 healthy Finnish adults aged 24-39 years in 2001 from a population-based follow-up study Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns. We examined the performance of the Framingham, Reynolds, Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), PROCAM, and Finrisk cardiovascular risk scores to predict subclinical atherosclerosis, that is carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque, carotid artery distensibility (CDist), and brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) 6 years later. In a 6-year prediction of high IMT (highest decile or plaque), areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for baseline Finrisk (0.733), SCORE (0.726), PROCAM (0.712), and Reynolds (0.729) risk scores were similar as for Framingham risk score (0.728, P always =0.15). All risk scores had a similar discrimination in predicting low CDist (lowest decile) (0.652, 0.642, 0.639, 0.658, 0.652 respectively, P always =0.41). In the prediction of low FMD (lowest decile), Finrisk, PROCAM, Reynolds, and Framingham scores had similar AUCs (0.578, 0.594, 0.582, 0.568, P always =0.08) and SCORE discriminated slightly better (AUC=0.596, P
Notes
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PubMed ID
20354441 View in PubMed
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Changes in Daily Steps and Body Mass Index and Waist to Height Ratio during Four Year Follow-Up in Adults: Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature289907
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 09 05; 14(9):
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Date
09-05-2017
Author
Kasper Salin
Mirja Hirvensalo
Costan G Magnussen
Risto Telama
Nina Hutri-Kähönen
Jorma Viikari
Olli Raitakari
Tuija Tammelin
Author Affiliation
Faculty of Sport & Heath Sciences, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylän, Finland. kasper.makela@jyu.fi.
Source
Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 09 05; 14(9):
Date
09-05-2017
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Keywords
Adult
Body mass index
Female
Finland
Follow-Up Studies
Humans
Male
Middle Aged
Waist-Height Ratio
Walking
Abstract
Aims: Over the study years, there was a significant increase in body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) in middle aged Finnish adults. Methods: Data were obtained from 1033 Finnish adults from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study in 2007 and 2011. Cohort study participants wore an Omron Walking Style One (HJ-152R-E) pedometer for five days and were grouped into those who increased, maintained and decreased their steps between 2007 and 2011. Paired samples t-test was used to compare body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-height ratio (WtHR) change values between the change groups in study years. Results: Among study population BMI and WtHR increase between study years was statistically significant (p
Notes
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PubMed ID
28872597 View in PubMed
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