In this study of Black gay and bisexual men in Toronto, sexually active survey participants reported on their sexual behaviours with male partners of different ethnoracial backgrounds, and interview participants reflected on how their sexual relationships emerged in the context of race and interracial desire. Most survey participants reported sexual relationships with other Black men. Participants were more likely to be insertive with White and other ethnoracial men than with Black men. A significant number of participants who were receptive or versatile with Black partners switched to the insertive role when their sexual partners were not Black. Interview participants ascribed a sense of fulfilment to their sexual relationships with other Black men, but avoided relationships with White men or interpreted such relationships as either purely sexual and/or inflected by their racialised objectification. Others avoided sexual relationships with other Black men or preferred relationships with White men, sometimes in opposition to experiences of oppressive masculinity from some Black partners but mindful of the possibility of racialised encounters with their White partners. Study participants emerge as informed sexual subjects, self-conscious about their sexual relationships and variously inclined to negotiate or resist racialisation and oppression in the private and public spheres.
The Greater Involvement of People Living with HIV/AIDS Principle (GIPA) has been a core commitment for many people involved in the community-based HIV/AIDS movement. GIPA refers to the inclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS in service delivery and decision-making processes that affect their lives. Despite its central importance to the movement, it has received little attention in the academic literature. Drawing on focus group discussions among staff members and volunteers of AIDS service organizations, activists, and community members, we explore challenges to the implementation of the GIPA principle in community-based HIV/AIDS organizations in Ontario, Canada. Our findings reveal ways in which implementing GIPA has become more complicated over recent years. Challenges relating to health, stigma and disclosure, evolving HIV/AIDS organizations, and GIPA-related tensions are identified. This paper considers our findings in light of previous research, and suggests some implications for practice.
In Ontario, there are significant geographical disparities in colorectal cancer incidence. In particular, the northern region of Timiskaming has the highest incidence of colorectal cancer in Ontario while the southern region of Peel displays the lowest. We aimed to identify non-nutritional modifiable environmental factors in Timiskaming that may be associated with its diverging colorectal cancer incidence rates when compared to Peel.
We performed a systematic review to identify established and proposed environmental factors associated with colorectal cancer incidence, created an assessment questionnaire tool regarding these environmental exposures, and applied this questionnaire among 114 participants from the communities of Timiskaming and Peel.
We found that tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, residential use of organochlorine pesticides, and potential exposure to toxic metals were dominant factors among Timiskaming respondents. We found significant differences regarding active smoking, chronic alcohol use, reported indoor and outdoor household pesticide use, and gold and silver mining in the Timiskaming region.
This study, the first to assess environmental factors in the Timiskaming community, identified higher reported exposures to tobacco, alcohol, pesticides, and mining in Timiskaming when compared with Peel. These significant findings highlight the need for specific public health assessments and interventions regarding community environmental exposures.
Black Canadian youth remain disproportionally affected by an array of social and health issues, including sexually transmitted infections. While research exists in support of the involvement of parents as a key means to prevent or modify harmful behaviours among youth, less is known about how parent-child communication can serve as a prevention intervention strategy within Black families in Canada. This study explores sexual health communication between Black parents and youth in Nova Scotia and identifies facilitators, obstacles and issues that families face in dialoguing about sexual health.
Focus groups and in-depth interview sessions were held with a diverse sample of parents of Black youth, health and education professionals, and Black youth in Nova Scotia, as part of a larger study aimed at exploring parent-child communication on sexual health and HIV. The research team worked in partnership with and received feedback from key informants and a community advisory committee throughout the various stages of this study. All sessions were audio-taped with permission and thematic analysis was carried out on the verbatim transcripts.
Six key themes emerged from the data analysis in relation to parent-child communication within Black families in Nova Scotia: 1. the gendered nature of [sexual] health communication; 2. fear and uncertainty as obstacles; 3. open and honest dialogue from an early age as a facilitator; 4. media as both a catalyst and a barrier; 5. peers as a catalyst; and 6. time constraints as an obstacle.
The findings of this study reveal that parent-child communication regarding sexual health promotion within Black families in Nova Scotia remains varied and is heavily affected by a myriad of intersecting determinants of health faced by Black youth and their parents. Health promotion interventions aimed at fostering and supporting parent-child communication on sexual health must simultaneously target both parents and youth and further, such efforts must engage a high level of cultural competency in order to better meet the needs of this population.
In Canada, there is a paucity of research aimed at understanding Black gay men and the antecedents to risk factors for HIV. This study is an attempt to move beyond risk factor analysis and explore the role of sexual and ethnic communities in the lives of these men. The study utilized a community-based research and critical race theory approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight key informants to augment our understanding of Black gay men and to facilitate recruitment of participants. In-depth interviews were done with 24 Black gay men. Our data showed that the construction of community for Black gay men is challenged by their social and cultural environment. However, these men use their resilience to navigate gay social networks. Black gay men expressed a sense of abjuration from both gay and Black communities because of homophobia and racism. It is essential for health and social programmers to understand how Black gay men interact with Black and gay communities and the complexities of their interactions in creating outreach educational, preventive and support services.
To monitor HIV incidence we tested a cohort of men who have sex with men in Montreal for HIV every 6 months. Between 1996 and 2001, 17 out of 1244 participants seroconverted, for an HIV incidence of 0.56 per 100 person-years (py) (95% CL 0.29, 0.83). The incidence decreased over the study period, from 0.75 to 0.34 per 100 py; which was not statistically significant. An in-depth evaluation of the situation in Montreal could identify useful lessons for prevention efforts elsewhere.
The objective of this study is to determine temporal trends in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with other men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort Study, 1997-2003.
The Omega Cohort Study was a longitudinal study of HIV-negative MSM aged 16 years or older and living in Montreal. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires and interviews every 6 months. Trend analysis using the generalized estimating equation was done for length of cohort membership (visits) and by calendar time for all visits, per type of sexual partner. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to measure the odds of increasing UAI per 6-month period.
Among subjects who were followed for at least 4 years, UAI increased with regular seroconcordant partners (OR, 1.06, 95% CI 1.04-1.09), and any type of partner (OR, 1.05, 95% CI 1.03- 1.07). There was a nonnegligible increase in UAI with casual partners (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.01-1.09). For the analysis by calendar time, there were increases in UAI between with regular seroconcordant partners (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.05) and any type of partner (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.02-1.04). There were nonnegligible increases in UAI with casual partners (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.00-1.05) and with any type of partner except regular seroconcordant partner from 15.7% to 18.8% (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04).
There was a nonnegligible and consistent increase in UAI among Omega participants, between 1997 and 2003. Continuous trend analysis is important because it allows us to closely follow UAI and to implement intervention strategies that may help to stop or reduce the present trend.
Erratum In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Aug 1;42(4):521
To determine temporal trends in unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) participating in the Omega Cohort Study, 1997 through 2003.
The Omega Cohort Study was a longitudinal study of HIV-negative MSM aged 16 years or older and living in Montreal. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires and interviews every 6 months. Trend analysis using the generalized estimating equation was done for length of cohort membership (visits) and by calendar time for all visits per type of sexual partner. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to measure the odds of increasing UAI per 6-month period.
Among subjects who were followed for at least 4 years, UAI increased with regular seroconcordant partners (OR = 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04 to 1.09) and any type of partner (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.07). There was a nonnegligible increase in UAI with casual partners (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.09). For the analysis by calendar time, there were increases in UAI between regular seroconcordant partners (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.05) and any type of partner (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.04). There were nonnegligible increases in UAI with casual partners (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.05) and with any type of partner except a regular seroconcordant partner from 15.7% to 18.8% (OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.04).
There was a nonnegligible and consistent increase in UAI among Omega Cohort Study participants between 1997 and 2003. Continuous trend analysis is important because it allows us to follow UAI closely and to implement intervention strategies that may help to stop or reduce the present trend.
Erratum In: J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Aug 1;42(4):521
A population-based, longitudinal, mailed survey was conducted.
To investigate the 6-month incidence and determinants of clinically significant low back pain in the Saskatchewan adult population.
Few studies have investigated the incidence of significant low back pain in general populations. When available, such studies often differ in the assessment of pain severity. This lack of consensus in measuring pain severity results in large differences in incidence rates.
A questionnaire requesting information on low back pain and other health conditions was mailed to randomly chosen individuals, ages 20 to 69, residing in the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Of the 1131 (55%) who responded at baseline, 848 had not experienced clinically significant low back pain during the past 6 months. Clinically significant low back pain was assessed using the Chronic Pain Questionnaire, a 7-item scale that measures the intensity of chronic pain and associated disability. Individuals with no clinically significant low back pain were followed up at 6 months.
At the follow-up assessment, 50 individuals reported clinically significant low back pain, representing a cumulative incidence of 8% (95% confidence interval, 6-10.4). In logistic regression models, marital status, rural residency, and history of back and neck pain were associated with the onset of clinically significant low back pain.
The 6-month incidence of clinically significant low back pain is high in Saskatchewan. It is important to prevent this condition because of the high economic and social costs associated with it.