This study assesses potential presenteeism costs and the association of these with a company's business figures.
We conducted the questionnaire surveys in alternate years between 2003 and 2007 and linked them to sickness absence register data. Perceived work ability levels were assessed and converted into presenteeism days using the Presenteeism Scale tool. Sickness absence and presenteeism days were converted into monetary figures using median monthly salary information.
The share of presenteeism costs was constant at about 1% of annual turnover and about 3.7% of personnel costs. The lowest annual presenteeism cost per employee was EUR 986 and the highest was EUR 1302. The lowest number of presenteeism days per employee in a year was 8.7 days and the highest number was 10.4 days. Estimated losses to a company due to sickness absences and presenteeism ranged from EUR 4.6 million to EUR 5.6 million annually. The potential presenteeism costs to the company and to Finnish society were vast.
Presenteeism is a costly problem but more research is needed to reveal the connections between presenteeism and a company's turnover, personnel costs and profit.
The purpose of the present study was to identify changes in different components of physical capacity among middle-aged women and men employed in the municipal branch for 16 years. The data were obtained by laboratory measurements and postal questionnaires. The study group consisted of 45 middle-aged subjects, who were on average 51.5 years old at the beginning of the follow-up in 1981 and 67.3 years in 1997. During the 16-year follow-up period, the average physical capacity of these workers decreased by approximately 20%. The study showed that the greatest changes occurred in isometric trunk muscle strength and in the flexibility of the spine, whereas smaller changes were noted in anthropometrics. The decrease of physical capacity was greater among men (range 11.6% to 33.7%) than among women (range 3.3% to 26.7%), although women had more individual variations. On average, people without disease or who were physically active displayed better physical capacity than people with disease or who were physically passive.
Psychosocial risk factors have increased in today's work environment, and they threaten work ability. Good workplace atmosphere, psychosocial support, the ability to cope with stress, and skills and knowledge are all connected to more successful coping. Faster changes in the work environment and an increased workload can lead to a chain of fatigue and illness. The aim of this study was to evaluate a cognitive behavioural intervention as an early rehabilitation strategy to improve employees' well-being, in intervention group N446 and in control group N116. The well-being measures used were the Bergen Burnout Inventory (BBI 15), Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES), and depression and stress screening questions. Data were obtained by a self-report survey at baseline and at a nine-month follow-up. Differences were analysed within and between groups. The results suggest that cognitive behavioural intervention as an early rehabilitation programme will increase employees' well-being measured by BBI 15, UWES, and depression and stress screening questions. In the intervention group, the total BBI 15 score (p
To investigate the developmental pathways of multisite musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and the effect of physical and psychosocial working conditions on the development of MSP trajectories.
The study was conducted among food industry workers (N=868) using a longitudinal design. Surveys were conducted every 2 years from 2003 to 2009. The questionnaire covered MSP, physical and psychosocial working conditions (physical strain, environmental factors, repetitive movements, awkward postures; mental strain, team support, leadership, possibility to influence) and work ability. MSP as an outcome was defined as the number of painful areas of the body on a scale of 0-4. Latent class growth modelling and multinomial logistic regression were used to analyse the impact of working conditions on MSP pathways.
Five MSP trajectories (no MSP 35.6%, persistent MSP 28.8%, developing MSP 8.8%, increasing MSP 15.3% and decreasing MSP 11.5%) were identified. In a multivariable model, the no MSP pathway was set as the reference group. High physical strain (OR 3.26, 95% CI 2.10 to 5.04), poor environmental factors (3.84, 2.48 to 5.94), high repetitive movements (3.68, 2.31 to 5.88) and high mental strain (3.87, 2.53 to 5.92) at baseline predicted the persistent MSP pathway, allowing for poor work ability (2.81, 1.84 to 4.28) and female gender (1.80, 1.14 to 2.83). High physical strain and female gender predicted the developing MSP pathway. High physical strain, poor environmental factors and high repetitive movements predicted the increasing and decreasing MSP pathways.
A substantial proportion of individuals reported having persistent MSP, and one-third reported changing patterns of pain. Adverse physical working conditions and mental strain were strongly associated with having high but stable levels of MSP.
Workstations at school are among several factors that contribute to musculoskeletal symptoms among school-aged children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ergonomically designed workstations on schoolchildren's musculoskeletal symptoms as compared to conventional workstations. In the first 14-month phase of the study (2002-2003, two schools), 42 from the intervention and 46 from the control school participated. In the total follow-up of 26 months (2002-2004), 23 in the intervention group and 20 in the control group participated. Anthropometrics and musculoskeletal symptoms were measured. In general, the ergonomically designed school workstations did not decrease present neck-shoulder, upper back, low back and lower limbs strain and pain, compared to conventional ones during follow-ups.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major workplace issue. With increasing pressure to extend working lives, predictors of MSD risk across all age groups require accurate identification to inform risk reduction strategies.
In 2005 and 2009, a survey was conducted in a Finnish food processing company (N?=?734). Data on workplace physical and psychosocial hazards, work ability, job satisfaction and lifestyle-related variables were collected, and MSD risk was measured through assessment of work-related strain in four body areas. Predictors of MSD risk across three age groups (20-35, 36-49, 50+) were assessed with linear regression analysis.
Physical hazards and MSD risk were related differently for each age group. The relationship between psychosocial hazards and MSD risk was less clear. For younger workers, physical hazards were not associated with MSD risk. In contrast, for those aged 36-49, repetitive movements (B?=?1.76, p?
To investigate single-site and multi-site musculoskeletal pain as predictors of future sickness absence due to musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) among blue-collar employees in food industry, and to study to what extent this relationship depends on physical loading at work.
Survey responses of 901 employees on working conditions and musculoskeletal pain during the past week were linked to their future sickness absence records obtained from the personnel register of a food industry company. Negative binomial regression models were computed to determine associations of pain in one and in multi-site with the number of sickness absence days due to MSD during a four-year follow-up. Analyses were made in the whole cohort and stratified by the occurrence of repetitive movements and awkward postures (low/high).
Multi-site pain occurred among 59 % in the total cohort and predicted sickness absence with a rate ratio of 1.48 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.80], adjusted for age, gender, biomechanical and psychosocial working conditions, body mass index and physical exercise. Similar associations were seen in the sub-cohorts with a low occurrence of repetitive movements (RR 2.18, CI 1.69-2.80) and awkward postures (RR 1.78, CI 1.39-2.28), but not in the sub-cohorts with a high occurrence of these exposure. Single-site pain was not predictive of sickness absence.
A very high level of sickness absence in biomechanically strenuous work was found. Multi-site pain predicted sickness absence due to MSD among the employees with low exposure, but not among those with high exposure.
Musculoskeletal pain at multiple sites is common among working-age people and greatly increases work disability risk. Little is known of the work-related physical and psychosocial factors contributing to multi-site pain.
Survey responses from 734 employees (518 blue- and 216 white-collar; 65?% female) of a food processing company were collected twice, in 2005 and 2009. Information on musculoskeletal pain during the preceding week, and on environmental, biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures were obtained through a structured questionnaire. The association of multi-site pain with work exposures was estimated with logistic regression by gender and age group.
At baseline, 54?% of informants reported pain in more than one area, and 50?% at 4-year follow-up. Forty percent of all employees had multi-site pain both at baseline and at follow-up. Among those with multi-site pain at baseline, 69?% had multi-site pain at follow-up. Both repetitive work and awkward work postures at baseline were associated with multi-site pain at follow-up. Psychosocial factors (low job satisfaction, low team spirit, and little opportunity to exert influence at work) also strongly predicted multi-site pain at follow-up, especially among younger workers and men.
This prospective study provides new evidence of the high occurrence and persistence of musculoskeletal pain at multiple body sites in an industrial population with a strong association between biomechanical and psychosocial exposures at work and multi-site pain. Prevention of multi-site pain with many-sided modification of work exposures is likely to reduce work disability.
To estimate whether aerobic training has an effect on frequency of hot flushes or quality of life.
A randomized controlled trial.
Symptomatic, sedentary women (n = 176), 43-63 years, no current use of hormone therapy.
Unsupervised aerobic training for 50 minutes four times per week during 6 months.
Hot flushes as measured with Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL, SF-36), daily reported hot flushes on phone-based diary, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition.
Intervention group had larger decrease in the frequency of night-time hot flushes based on phone diary (P for month × group = 0.012), but not on WHQ scale. Intervention group had less depressed mood (P = 0.01) than control women according to change in WHQ score. Changes in WHQ score in depressed mood (P = 0.03) and menstrual symptoms (P = 0.01) in the intervention group were significantly dependent on frequency of training sessions. HRQoL was improved among the intervention group women in physical functioning (P = 0.049) and physical role limitation (P = 0.017). CRF improved (P = 0.008), and lean muscle mass increased (P = 0.046) significantly in the intervention group as compared to controls.
Aerobic training may decrease the frequency of hot flushes and improve quality of life among slightly overweight women.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of vocationally outpatient oriented rehabilitation on an intervention group, compared with a control group that did not take part in the intervention. The groups were compared for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) by the quantitative indicator RAND 36. Data were obtained by a self-report at baseline and at nine months follow-up. Differences between base-line and follow-up were analyzed within group and between the groups. The study population consisted of 751 municipal employees aged between 26 and 64 years; an intervention with 463 women and 115 men ( n = 578), and a control group with 138 women and 35 men ( n = 173). In this study we focused on those who had answered to all questions in RAND 36, thus 581 remained. Of these, 388 were in the intervention group (mean age 49.0 years) and 110 in the control group (mean age 48.4 years). Intervention was based on cognitive behavioral therapy. Participants in the 9-month outpatient intervention group showed statistically significant increase in all eight RAND 36 areas. Most improvement was seen in the psychosocial functioning index ( p = 0.002). Although there were no statistically significant changes in RAND 36 components in the control group, difference in changes between groups were seen in energy and fatigue ( p