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Challenges and directions for environmental public health indicators and surveillance.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature187825
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Sep-Oct;93 Suppl 1:S5-8
Publication Type
Article
Author
Chris Furgal
Pierre Gosselin
Author Affiliation
Public Health Research Unit, CHUQ-Pavillon CHUL, 2400 rue d'Estimauville, Beauport, QC G1E 7G9. christopher.furgal@crchul.ulaval.ca
Source
Can J Public Health. 2002 Sep-Oct;93 Suppl 1:S5-8
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Canada - epidemiology
Data Collection
Environmental Health - standards
Environmental Monitoring - methods
Epidemiological Monitoring
Humans
Population Surveillance
Public Health
Quality of Life
World Health Organization
PubMed ID
12425168 View in PubMed
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Climate change influences on environment as a determinant of Indigenous health: Relationships to place, sea ice, and health in an Inuit community.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262593
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr 28;136-137C:17-26
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-28-2015
Author
Agata Durkalec
Chris Furgal
Mark W Skinner
Tom Sheldon
Source
Soc Sci Med. 2015 Apr 28;136-137C:17-26
Date
Apr-28-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
This paper contributes to the literature on Indigenous health, human dimensions of climate change, and place-based dimensions of health by examining the role of environment for Inuit health in the context of a changing climate. We investigated the relationship between one key element of the environment - sea ice - and diverse aspects of health in an Inuit community in northern Canada, drawing on population health and health geography approaches. We used a case study design and participatory and collaborative approach with the community of Nain in northern Labrador, Canada. Focus groups (n = 2), interviews (n = 22), and participant observation were conducted in 2010-11. We found that an appreciation of place was critical for understanding the full range of health influences of sea ice use for Inuit. Negative physical health impacts were reported on less frequently than positive health benefits of sea ice use, which were predominantly related to mental/emotional, spiritual, social, and cultural health. We found that sea ice means freedom for sea ice users, which we suggest influences individual and collective health through relationships between sea ice use, culture, knowledge, and autonomy. While sea ice users reported increases in negative physical health impacts such as injuries and stress related to changing environmental conditions, we suggest that less tangible climate change impacts related to losses of health benefits and disruptions to place meanings and place attachment may be even more significant. Our findings indicate that climate change is resulting in and compounding existing environmental dispossession for Inuit. They also demonstrate the necessity of considering place meanings, culture, and socio-historical context to assess the complexity of climate change impacts on Indigenous environmental health.
PubMed ID
25974138 View in PubMed
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Communicating risk to aboriginal peoples: first nations and Metis responses to H1N1 risk messages.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature108079
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71106
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
S Michelle Driedger
Elizabeth Cooper
Cindy Jardine
Chris Furgal
Judith Bartlett
Author Affiliation
Department of Community Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. michelle.driedger@med.umanitoba.ca
Source
PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e71106
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Communicable disease control
Female
Humans
Indians, North American
Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype
Influenza, Human - epidemiology - prevention & control - virology
Information Dissemination
Male
Manitoba
Middle Aged
Pandemics
Risk factors
Young Adult
Abstract
Developing appropriate risk messages during challenging situations like public health outbreaks is complicated. The focus of this paper is on how First Nations and Metis people in Manitoba, Canada, responded to the public health management of pandemic H1N1, using a focus group methodology (n = 23 focus groups). Focus group conversations explored participant reactions to messaging regarding the identification of H1N1 virus risk groups, the H1N1 vaccine and how priority groups to receive the vaccine were established. To better contextualize the intentions of public health professionals, key informant interviews (n = 20) were conducted with different health decision makers (e.g., public health officials, people responsible for communications, representatives from some First Nations and Metis self-governing organizations). While risk communication practice has improved, 'one size' messaging campaigns do not work effectively, particularly when communicating about who is most 'at-risk'. Public health agencies need to pay more attention to the specific socio-economic, historical and cultural contexts of First Nations and Metis citizens when planning for, communicating and managing responses associated with pandemic outbreaks to better tailor both the messages and delivery. More attention is needed to directly engage First Nations and Metis communities in the development and dissemination of risk messaging.
Notes
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Cites: BMC Public Health. 2012;12:20522429559
PubMed ID
23940697 View in PubMed
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Community-level risk factors for notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, 1991-2008.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature117028
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:63
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Aliya Pardhan-Ali
Jeff Wilson
Victoria L Edge
Chris Furgal
Richard Reid-Smith
Maria Santos
Scott A McEwen
Author Affiliation
Department of Population Medicine, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada. apardhan@uoguelph.ca
Source
BMC Public Health. 2013;13:63
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Binomial Distribution
Campylobacter Infections - epidemiology
Cultural Characteristics
Food Habits
Giardiasis - epidemiology
Health Surveys
Humans
Northwest Territories - epidemiology
Poisson Distribution
Registries
Residence Characteristics - statistics & numerical data
Risk factors
Salmonella Infections - epidemiology
Socioeconomic Factors
Abstract
Enteric pathogens are an important cause of illness, however, little is known about their community-level risk factors (e.g., socioeconomic, cultural and physical environmental conditions) in the Northwest Territories (NWT) of Canada. The objective of this study was to undertake ecological (group-level) analyses by combining two existing data sources to examine potential community-level risk factors for campylobacteriosis, giardiasis and salmonellosis, which are three notifiable (mandatory reporting to public health authorities at the time of diagnosis) enteric infections.
The rate of campylobacteriosis was modeled using a Poisson distribution while rates of giardiasis and salmonellosis were modeled using a Negative Binomial distribution. Rate ratios (the ratio of the incidence of disease in the exposed group to the incidence of disease in the non-exposed group) were estimated for infections by the three major pathogens with potential community-level risk factors.
Significant (p=0.05) associations varied by etiology. There was increased risk of infection with Salmonella for communities with higher proportions of 'households in core need' (unsuitable, inadequate, and/or unaffordable housing) up to 42% after which the rate started to decrease with increasing core need. The risk of giardiasis was significantly higher both with increased 'internal mobility' (population moving between communities), and also where the community's primary health facility was a health center rather than a full-service hospital. Communities with higher health expenditures had a significantly decreased risk of giardiasis. Results of modeling that focused on each of Giardia and Salmonella infections separately supported and expanded upon previous research outcomes that suggested health disparities are often associated with socioeconomic status, geographical and social mobility, as well as access to health care (e.g. facilities, services and professionals). In the campylobacteriosis model, a negative association was found between food prices in communities and risk of infection. There was also a significant interaction between trapping and consumption of traditional foods in communities. Higher rates of community participation in both activities appeared to have a protective effect against campylobacteriosis.
These results raise very interesting questions about the role that traditional activities might play in infectious enteric disease incidence in the NWT, but should be interpreted with caution, recognizing database limitations in collection of case data and risk factor information (e.g. missing data). Given the cultural, socioeconomic, and nutritional benefits associated with traditional food practices, targeted community-based collaborative research is necessary to more fully investigate the statistical correlations identified in this exploratory research. This study demonstrates the value of examining the role of social determinants in the transmission and risk of infectious diseases.
Notes
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PubMed ID
23339723 View in PubMed
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Contaminants, health, effective risk assessment and communication in the circumpolar north

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature286400
Source
Pages 346-350 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Date
2010
  1 document  
Author
Katelyn Friendship
Chris Furgal
Author Affiliation
Frost Centre for Canadian Studies- Indigenous Studies, Indigenous Studies Department, Trent University, Peterborough, Canada
Indigenous Environmental Studies Program, Trent University, Peterborough, Canada
Source
Pages 346-350 in S. Chatwood, P. Orr and Tiina Ikaheimo, eds. Proceedings of the 14th International Congress on Circumpolar Health, Yellowknife, Canada, July 11-16, 2009. Securing the IPY Legacy: from Research to Action. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 2010; 69 (Suppl 7).
Date
2010
Language
English
Geographic Location
Canada
Publication Type
Conference/Meeting Material
Digital File Format
Text - PDF
Physical Holding
University of Alaska Anchorage
Keywords
Risk Management
Risk perception
Traditional foods
Contaminants
Traditional knowledge
Collaboration
Arctic Regions
Cross-cultural misunderstandings
Environment and health research
Indigenous knowledge
Politicization of information
Abstract
Objectives: With a better understanding of northern Indigenous risk perceptions related to food safety, this research aims to identify the role that Indigenous knowledge can play in risk assessment and management processes in order to support and ensure more culturally relevant and effective benefit-risk management strategies. Study design: This work is a part of a circumpolar review that is conducting case study evaluations in four regions on the topic of Indigenous environmental health benefit-risk assessment and communication in relation to contaminant exposure through the consumption of traditional/country foods. Methods: This project examines a series of events and communities in Yukon Territory, Canada. Forty-one interviews with traditional food experts (TFE) and environment and health decision-makers (HEDM) were conducted and analysed for thematic content. The research also included an extensive document review. Results: Overall, people are confident in their own ways of determining the safety of food items. This is predominately based on physical indicators. Of the HEDM interviewees, there were varied levels of experience for including traditional knowledge in risk management; 45% had direct experience, 36% had experience in other aspects of research and 18% had no direct experience. All interviewees discussed collaboration as a valuable process for effective risk management. Conclusions: â??Effective risk management" is dictated by the effort given to include the affected communities or populations. Yukon First Nations have their own way for determining food safety, and these methods and perceptions need to be considered in the framing of risk issues and from the initial stages of the management process. True collaboration is crucial for effectiveness.
Documents
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Contaminants in Canadian arctic biota and implications for human health: conclusions and knowledge gaps.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75391
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:539-46
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2005
Author
Derek C G Muir
Russel G Shearer
Jay Van Oostdam
Shawn G Donaldson
Chris Furgal
Author Affiliation
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, Canada L7R 4A6. derek.muir@ec.gc.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:539-46
Date
Dec-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food chain
Food Contamination
Humans
Metals - analysis
Organic Chemicals - analysis
Risk assessment
Abstract
This paper summarizes the major findings of the special issue entitled "Contaminants in Canadian Arctic Biota and Implications for Human Health." The individual papers and reviews in this special issue present a large amount of new information on contaminants in biota primarily from the Canadian arctic as well as from Alaska, Greenland and the European Arctic. Temporal and spatial trends are examined and potential biological effects on wildlife are assessed. The special issue also presents new and updated data on human exposure to and possible health effects of current levels of environmental contaminants in the Canadian Arctic. As part of the assessment of the human health implications, the unique structures and processes that have developed in the Canadian Arctic under the Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada to build partnerships and manage and communicate the benefits and risks associated with contaminant exposure are discussed. Application of this information in international forums to reduce anthropogenic emissions of contaminants to the environment is also discussed.
PubMed ID
16219339 View in PubMed
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Contaminants in Canadian Arctic biota and implications for human health: preface.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature75393
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:1-3
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-1-2005
Author
Derek C G Muir
Russel G Shearer
Jay Van Oostdam
Shawn G Donaldson
Chris Furgal
Author Affiliation
National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, Canada ON L7R 4A6. derek.muir@ec.gc.ca
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2005 Dec 1;351-352:1-3
Date
Dec-1-2005
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Animals
Arctic Regions
Canada
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - analysis
Food chain
Food Contamination
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - analysis
Metals, Heavy - analysis
Risk assessment
PubMed ID
16203024 View in PubMed
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Contemporary programs in support of traditional ways: Inuit perspectives on community freezers as a mechanism to alleviate pressures of wild food access in Nain, Nunatsiavut.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature258443
Source
Health Place. 2014 Nov;30:251-9
Publication Type
Article
Date
Nov-2014
Author
Jennifer Organ
Heather Castleden
Chris Furgal
Tom Sheldon
Catherine Hart
Author Affiliation
School for Resource and Environmental Studies, Dalhousie University, Kenneth C. Rowe Management Bldg, 6100 University Avenue, Suite 5010, PO Box 15000, Halifax, NS, Canada B3H 4R2. Electronic address: jforgan@dal.ca.
Source
Health Place. 2014 Nov;30:251-9
Date
Nov-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
Rapid socio-cultural, economic, and environmental changes are challenging wild food access and thus food security for Inuit in the Canadian Arctic. In response to the continued value and practice of harvesting wild foods, communities are establishing "wild food support" initiatives. This study evaluated how one such initiative, a community freezer, in Nain, Nunatsiavut supported wild food access for community members. Data were collected through: interviews and focus groups with users, freezer managers, and active harvesters; participant observation; and document analysis. Results indicated that the community freezer supported socio-cultural, economic and local access to wild foods. However, there were issues associated with supply, dependency, social exclusion, and tension between feasibility and traditional values and practices. Communities, governments, and policymakers are urged to consider social and physical location as factors when investing in and monitoring such initiatives. The Nunatsiavut Government and the Nain Inuit Community Government have since worked together to modify this early freezer initiative due, in part, to this study's findings.
PubMed ID
25460908 View in PubMed
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Factors influencing H1N1 vaccine behavior among Manitoba Metis in Canada: a qualitative study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature262053
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:128
Publication Type
Article
Date
2015
Author
S Michelle Driedger
Ryan Maier
Chris Furgal
Cindy Jardine
Source
BMC Public Health. 2015;15:128
Date
2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Abstract
During the first wave of the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 2009, Aboriginal populations in Canada experienced disproportionate rates of infection, particularly in the province of Manitoba. To protect those thought to be most at-risk, health authorities in Manitoba listed all Aboriginal people, including Metis, among those able to receive priority access to the novel vaccine when it first became available. Currently, no studies exist that have investigated the attitudes, influences, and vaccine behaviors among Aboriginal communities in Canada. This paper is the first to systematically connect vaccine behavior with the attitudes and beliefs that influenced Metis study participants' H1N1 vaccine decision-making.
Researchers held focus groups (n?=?17) with Metis participants in urban, rural, and remote locations of Manitoba following the conclusion of the H1N1 pandemic. Participants were asked about their vaccination decisions and about the factors that influenced their decisions. Following data collection, responses were coded into the broad categories of a social-ecological model, nuanced by categories stemming from earlier research. Responses were then quantified to show the most influential factors in positively or negatively affecting the vaccine decision.
Media reporting, the influence of peer groups, and prioritization all had positive and negative influential effects on decision making. Whether vaccinated or not, the most negatively influential factors cited by participants were a lack of knowledge about the vaccine and the pandemic as well as concerns about vaccine safety. Risk of contracting H1N1 influenza was the biggest factor in positively influencing a vaccine decision, which in many cases trumped any co-existing negative influencers.
Metis experiences of colonialism in Canada deeply affected their perceptions of the vaccine and pandemic, a context that health systems need to take into account when planning response activities in the future. Participants felt under-informed about most aspects of the vaccine and the pandemic, and many vaccine related misconceptions and fears existed. Recommendations include leveraging doctor-patient interactions as a site for sharing vaccine-related knowledge, as well as targeted, culturally-appropriate, and empowering public information strategies to supply reliable vaccine and pandemic information to potentially at-risk Aboriginal populations.
Notes
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PubMed ID
25884562 View in PubMed
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Identifying key needs for the integration of social-ecological outcomes in arctic wildlife monitoring.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature296163
Source
Conserv Biol. 2018 Nov 24; :
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Nov-24-2018
Author
Helen C Wheeler
Dominique Berteaux
Chris Furgal
Kevin Cazelles
Nigel G Yoccoz
David Grémillet
Author Affiliation
Canada Research Chair on Northern Biodiversity and Centre for Northern Studies, Université du Québec à Rimouski, Rimouski, QC, Canada.
Source
Conserv Biol. 2018 Nov 24; :
Date
Nov-24-2018
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Abstract
For effective monitoring in social-ecological systems to meet needs for biodiversity, science, and humans, desired outcomes must be clearly defined and routes from direct to derived outcomes understood. The Arctic is undergoing rapid climatic, ecological, social, and economic changes and requires effective wildlife monitoring to meet diverse stakeholder needs. To identify stakeholder priorities concerning desired outcomes of arctic wildlife monitoring, we conducted in-depth interviews with 29 arctic scientists, policy and decision makers, and representatives of Indigenous organizations and NGOs. Using qualitative content analysis, we identified and defined desired outcomes and documented links between outcomes. Using network analysis, we investigated the structure of perceived links between desired outcomes. We identified 18 desired outcomes from monitoring and classified them as either driven by monitoring information, monitoring process, or a combination of both. Highly cited outcomes were make decisions, conserve, detect change, disseminate, and secure food. These reflect key foci of arctic monitoring. Infrequently cited outcomes (e.g., govern) were emerging themes. Three modules comprised our outcome network. The modularity highlighted the low strength of perceived links between outcomes that were information driven or primarily information driven (e.g., detect change, make decisions, conserve or secure food) and process driven and derived outcomes (e.g., cooperate, learn, educate). The outcomes expand monitoring community and disseminate created connections between these modules. We identified key desired outcomes from monitoring that are widely applicable to social-ecological systems within and outside the Arctic, particularly those with wildlife subsistence economies. Attributes and motivations associated with outcomes can guide future development of integrated monitoring goals for biodiversity conservation and human needs. Our results demonstrate the disconnect between information and process driven goals and how expanding the monitoring community and better integrating monitoring stakeholders will help connect information derived and process derived outcomes for effective ecosystem stewardship. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
PubMed ID
30471146 View in PubMed
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19 records – page 1 of 2.