To estimate alcohol consumption among Danish adults with diabetes and to investigate whether certain comorbidities are related to a high alcohol intake.
A total of 162,283 participants responded to the Danish National Health Survey 2013 (questionnaire study, response rate 54.0%). Variables on the participants were extracted from the survey and 6.5% of respondents reported having diabetes. High alcohol consumption was defined as >21 (men) or >14 (women) standard drinks per week.
High alcohol consumption was reported by 11.2 % of men and 4.3% of women with diabetes. In the women, this was fewer than among women without diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.77, p
Active commuting provides routine-based regular physical activity which can reduce the risk of chronic diseases. Using public transportation involves some walking or cycling to a transit stop, transfers and a walk to the end location and users of public transportation have been found to accumulate more moderate physical activity than non-users. Understanding how public transportation characteristics are associated with active transportation is thus important from a public health perspective. This study examines the associations between objective measures of access to public transportation and self-reported active commuting. Self-reported time spent either walking or cycling commuting each day and the distance to workplace were obtained for adults aged 16 to 65 in the Danish National Health Survey 2010 (n = 28,928). Access to public transportation measures were computed by combining GIS-based road network distances from home address to public transit stops an integrating their service level. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association between access to public transportation measures and active commuting. Distance to bus stop, density of bus stops, and number of transport modes were all positively associated with being an active commuter and with meeting recommendations of physical activity. No significant association was found between bus services at the nearest stop and active commuting. The results highlight the importance of including detailed measurements of access to public transit in order to identify the characteristics that facilitate the use of public transportation and active commuting.
Cites: Health Place. 2013 Sep;23:18-2523732403
Cites: PLoS One. 2013;8(8):e6991223967064
Cites: Am J Public Health. 2014 May;104(5):854-924625142
Sedentary behaviour is a risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease etc., independently of level of physical activity. Availability of recreational green space is associated with physical activity, but is unknown in relation to sedentary behaviour. The aim of this study is to examine the association between availability of green space and sedentary leisure time in a Danish population.
The study was based on a random sample of 49,806 adults aged 16 + who answered a questionnaire in 2010, including sedentary leisure time. Objective measures of density green were calculated for each respondent using Geographical Information System (GIS). A multilevel regression analysis, taking neighbourhood and individual factors into account, was performed.
65% of the respondents were sedentary in leisure time for more than 3h/day. We found that poor availability of forest and recreational facilities in the neighbourhood is associated with more sedentary leisure time; OR: 1.11 (95% CL: 1.04-1.19), after adjusting for individual, and neighbourhood, level characteristics.
Among adult inhabitants, sedentary leisure time of more than 3h/day was more frequent in neighbourhoods with less green surroundings. Intervention efforts may benefit from emphasising the importance of having recreations options in residential areas to provide alternatives to sedentary activities.
To determine the prevalence of asthma, atopic eczema and hay fever among children in different age groups and examine the associations with parental socioeconomic position.
A cross-sectional health survey of four complete birth-cohorts in the municipality of Copenhagen was conducted. Children aged 11 and 15 years and parents of children aged 3 and 6 years completed questionnaires on symptoms and diseases. Data were linked to national registers on demographics and socioeconomic position measured as education, employment and income. In total, 9720 children/parents responded (50.5%).
The prevalence of asthma and hay fever increased with increasing age; asthma: from 3.2% among children aged 3 years to 15.4% among children aged 15 years; hay fever: from 3.1% among children aged 3 years to 21.3% among children aged 15 years. The prevalence of atopic eczema did not vary with age and ranged between 15.5% and 17.8%. Odds Ratios for children of parents with the lowest vs. the highest educational level were 1.50 (95% CI = 1.17-1.91) for asthma; 1.68 (95% CI = 1.35-2.10) for hay fever; and 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.89) for atopic eczema. Unemployment was significantly associated with a decreased risk of atopic eczema and eczema symptoms. There was no independent association between household income and any of the outcomes.
The prevalence of asthma and hay fever, but not atopic eczema, increased with increasing age. Atopic eczema was associated with high parental educational level, whereas asthma and hay fever were associated with low educational level. No association with household income was found.
The aim of the current study was to present and discuss a broad range of register-based definitions of chronic conditions for use in register research, as well as the challenges and pitfalls when defining chronic conditions by the use of registers.
The definitions were defined based on information from nationwide Danish public healthcare registers. Medical and epidemiological specialists identified and grouped relevant diagnosis codes that covered chronic conditions, using the International Classification System version 10 (ICD-10). Where relevant, prescription and other healthcare data were also used to define the chronic conditions.
We identified 199 chronic conditions and subgroups, which were divided into four groups according to a medical judgment of the expected duration of the conditions, as follows. Category I: Stationary to progressive conditions (maximum register inclusion time of diagnosis since the start of the register in 1994). Category II: Stationary to diminishing conditions (10 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category III: Diminishing conditions (5 years of register inclusion after time of diagnosis). Category IV: Borderline conditions (2 years of register inclusion time following diagnosis). The conditions were primarily defined using hospital discharge diagnoses; however, for 35 conditions, including common conditions such as diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease and allergy, more complex definitions were proposed based on record linkage between multiple registers, including registers of prescribed drugs and use of general practitioners' services. CONCLUSIONS THIS STUDY PROVIDED A CATALOG OF REGISTER-BASED DEFINITIONS FOR CHRONIC CONDITIONS FOR USE IN HEALTHCARE PLANNING AND RESEARCH, WHICH IS, TO THE AUTHORS' KNOWLEDGE, THE LARGEST CURRENTLY COMPILED IN A SINGLE STUDY.
OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple self-administered questionnaire identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes with a sensitivity of 75% and minimizing the high-risk group needing subsequent testing. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A population-based sample (Inter99 study) of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years completed a questionnaire on diabetes-related symptoms and risk factors. The participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. The risk score was derived from the first half and validated on the second half of the study population. External validation was performed based on the Danish Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) pilot study. The risk score was developed by stepwise backward multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The final risk score included age, sex, BMI, known hypertension, physical activity at leisure time, and family history of diabetes, items independently and significantly (P
In 2010 the five Danish regions and the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark conducted a national representative health survey among the adult population in Denmark. This paper describes the study design and the sample and study population as well as the content of the questionnaire.
The survey was based on five regional stratified random samples and one national random sample. The samples were mutually exclusive. A total of 298,550 individuals (16 years or older) were invited to participate. Information was collected using a mixed mode approach (paper and web questionnaires). A questionnaire with a minimum of 52 core questions was used in all six subsamples. Calibrated weights were computed in order to take account of the complex survey design and reduce non-response bias.
In all, 177,639 individuals completed the questionnaire (59.5%). The response rate varied from 52.3% in the Capital Region of Denmark sample to 65.5% in the North Denmark Region sample. The response rate was particularly low among young men, unmarried people and among individuals with a different ethnic background than Danish.
The survey was a result of extensive national cooperation across sectors, which makes it unique in its field of application, e.g. health surveillance, planning and prioritizing public health initiatives and research. However, the low response rate in some subgroups of the study population can pose problems in generalizing data, and efforts to increase the response rate will be important in the forthcoming surveys.
The prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased markedly the past decades. However, recent studies have indicated that the development differ between different socio-economic groups and different geographic regions. The aim of this study was to assess the development in prevalence of overweight and obesity from 2006/2007 to 2010 by age, gender, socio-economic factors and geographical regions.
Two cross-sectional surveys in three regions in Denmark (The Capital Region of Denmark, The Central Denmark Region and The North Denmark Region) were performed in 2006/2007 and 2010. A random sample of citizens aged more than or equal to 25 years was invited to participate. The overall response rate was 57.5% (n = 177 076). Data from questionnaire and central registers were included.
In 2006/2007, the prevalence of overweight, including obesity, was 54.3% and 36.8% among men and women, respectively. Of the overweight men 12.8% were obese and 11.8% women were obese. The prevalence was highest in the Northern region and among those who were older, had short education, was outside labour market, had low income and residents in rural areas. In 2010, the prevalence of overweight had increased to 56.3% and 39.6% in men and women, respectively (P
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between daily glycemic index, daily glycemic load, simple sugars, dietary fiber, and the prevalence of a measure of insulin resistance in 30- to 60-year-old nondiabetic Danish men and women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Inter99 study is a nonpharmacological intervention study. We used baseline data and examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and an estimate of insulin resistance in 5,675 subjects at 30-60 years. The dietary intake was estimated from a self-administered food frequency questionnaire, and insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Multiple regressions were performed with HOMA-IR as the dependent variable and carbohydrate-related factors as explanatory variables. All models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. RESULTS: Intake of lactose was positively associated with HOMA-IR (P