BACKGROUND: Few data exist regarding the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infections in aboriginal, including the First Nations (Indian) or Inuit (Eskimo) populations of North America. We have previously found 95% of the adults in Wasagamack, a First Nations community in Northeastern Manitoba, Canada, are seropositive for H. pylori. We aimed to determine the age at acquisition of H. pylori among the children of this community, and if any association existed with stool occult blood or demographic factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children resident in the Wasagamack First Nation in August 1999. A demographic questionnaire was administered. Stool was collected, frozen and batch analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for H. pylori antigen and for the presence of occult blood. Questionnaire data were analyzed and correlated with the presence or absence of H. pylori. RESULTS: 163 (47%) of the estimated 350 children aged 6 weeks to 12 years, resident in the community were enrolled. Stool was positive for H. pylori in 92 (56%). By the second year of life 67% were positive for H. pylori. The youngest to test positive was 6 weeks old. There was no correlation of a positive H. pylori status with gender, presence of pets, serum Hgb, or stool occult blood. Forty-three percent of H. pylori positive and 24% of H. pylori negative children were
To determine the utility of the anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibody (ASCA) ELISA test developed in Manitoba in 2001 in a population-wide sample referred from physicians across Manitoba in their investigation of patients with gastrointestinal symptoms.
Patients whose serum was referred for ASCA testing in 2001 and 2002 were eligible for the present study. ELISA was performed by a technologist, blind to patient diagnoses. A single investigator contacted physicians to facilitate chart review. Data collected included demographics, final diagnoses and tests used to substantiate the final diagnosis.
Of 482 subjects identified, 410 charts were available for review and 29 of those were unavailable for follow-up or had incomplete charts. The present study population included Crohn's disease (CD, n=114), ulcerative colitis (n=74), indeterminate colitis (n=31), celiac disease (n=9), irritable bowel syndrome (n=75), other diagnoses (n=33) and no disease (n=45). ASCA had a sensitivity of 37% (95% CI 27.8 to 46.8) and specificity of 97% (95% CI 93.8 to 98.6) for diagnosing CD and an odds ratio for a diagnosis of CD of 18.4 (95% CI 8.2 to 41.3). The 47 ASCA-positive patients included the following diagnoses: CD=39, ulcerative colitis=3, indeterminate colitis=1, celiac disease=3 and no disease=1. The likelihood of having an inflammatory disease if ASCA is positive was nearly 40-fold.
A positive ASCA test using this assay nearly clinches a diagnosis of some form of inflammatory intestinal disease, which is highly likely to be CD. In symptomatic patients, a positive ASCA test should encourage the clinician to pursue further investigations.
We aimed to determine the frequency of fistulizing Crohn's disease (CD) and the relationship between perineal and luminal fistulas.
A population-based retrospective study was conducted by using the University of Manitoba Inflammatory Bowel Disease Research Registry. In 2003 there were 3192 IBD patients, 1595 had (CD), and 398 patients reported stricturing or fistulizing disease. Patients were interviewed and medical records were reviewed for phenotype assessment. Perineal fistulas were defined as those exiting in the perineum or fistulizing to sexual organs. Luminal fistulas were defined as arising from the bowel to organs other than the perineum.
The prevalence of fistulizing CD was at most 22.1%. Of the 398 patients, 280 CD patients were eligible for full phenotype verification. Of these, 50 patients had both perineal and luminal fistulas, 151 had only perineal fistulas, and 79 had only luminal fistulas. Odds ratio (OR) for likelihood of having luminal fistula disease if perineal disease was present was 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.40-7.42; P
To determine whether a diagnosis of otitis media in the first 5 years of childhood is associated with the development of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
This was a nested case-control analysis of a population-based IBD database in Manitoba, Canada. A total of 294 children with IBD diagnosed between 1989 and 2008 were matched to 2377 controls, based on age, sex, and geographic region. The diagnosis of ottis media was based on physician claims. IBD status was determined based on a validated administrative database definition. Multivariate conditional logistic regression models were used to model the association between otitis media and IBD, adjusted for annual physician visits.
Approximately 5% of the IBD cases and 12% of the controls did not have an otitis media diagnosis before that IBD case date. By age 5 years, 89% of the IBD cases had at least one diagnosis of otitis media, compared with 82% of the controls. In multivariate analyses, compared with cases and controls without an otitis media diagnosis, individuals with an otitis media diagnosis by age 5 years were 2.8-fold more likely to be an IBD case (95% CI, 1.5-5.2; P = .001). This association was detected in stratified models examining Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis separately.
Compared with controls, subjects diagnosed with IBD were more likely to have had at least one early childhood episode of otitis media before their diagnosis. We suspect that otitis media serves as a proxy measure of antibiotic use.
As for many complex diseases, the incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is higher among individuals born during certain seasons. This difference could arise from seasonal variations in many factors, including exposure to sunlight, antibiotics, or infectious agents. We investigated the relationship between season of birth, early childhood exposure to antibiotics, and incidence of IBD.
We performed a nested case-control analysis using data from the University of Manitoba inflammatory bowel disease epidemiology database. We compared seasons of birth among 11,145 individuals with IBD (cases) and 108,633 controls using conditional logistic regression models. We collected data on use of antibiotics in the first year of life for cases and controls from the Manitoba Drug Program Information Network-a comprehensive database of all prescriptions given to residents of Manitoba since 1995.
Approximately 27.0% of cases were born from April through June, compared with 25.6% of controls (odds ratio, 1.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.12; P = .002). Comparisons made by sex (male vs female) and type of IBD (ulcerative colitis vs Crohn's disease) showed statistical significance only for men with Crohn's disease (odds ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.25; P = .009). At ages 6 months and older, cases and controls born from April through June received a significantly greater number of prescriptions for antibiotics than cases and controls born in other months.
Men with Crohn's disease are more likely to have been born in the months of April through June.
The development of commensal flora in infants has been shown to be sensitive to antibiotic use. Altered intestinal flora is thought to contribute to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), an idiopathic chronic condition. We aimed to determine if early use of antibiotics was associated with the development of IBD in childhood.
Nested case-control analysis of the population-based University of Manitoba Inflammatory Bowel Disease Epidemiologic Database was carried out. IBD status was determined from a validated administrative database definition. A total of 36 subjects diagnosed between 1996 and 2008 were matched to 360 controls, on the basis of age, sex, and geographic region. Antibiotic data were drawn from the Manitoba Drug Program Information Network, a comprehensive population-based database of all prescription drugs for all Manitobans dating back to 1995. Antibiotic use in the first year of life was compared between IBD cases and controls.
The mean age at IBD diagnosis was 8.4 years. Twenty-one cases (58%) had one or more antibiotic dispensations in their first year of life compared with 39% of controls. Crohn's disease was diagnosed in 75% of IBD cases. Those receiving one or more dispensations of antibiotics were at 2.9 times the odds (95% confidence interval: 1.2, 7.0) of being an IBD case.
Subjects diagnosed with IBD in childhood are more likely to have used antibiotics in their first year of life.
Cross-sectional studies have identified high levels of fatigue in patients with active or quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but there has been little attention to the long-term effects of fatigue in these patients. We performed a longitudinal study of fatigue in patients with IBD to determine its course and contributing factors.
Data were obtained from participants in the Manitoba IBD Cohort Study (N = 312; 51% with Crohn's disease), a longitudinal population-based study. Symptomatic disease activity was measured every 6 months for 2 years to characterize long-term disease patterns as active, fluctuating, or inactive, based on the validated Manitoba IBD Index. We collected data concurrently on fatigue (Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory), psychological function, and laboratory biomarkers at the point of study entry and 1 and 2 years later.
Of the study participants, 26% had consistently inactive, 29% had fluctuating, and 45% had consistently active disease over the 2-year time period. Mean levels of fatigue were strongly associated with disease activity; participants with consistently inactive disease had the lowest level of fatigue at each time point. Multivariate analyses indicated fatigue levels increased over time regardless of disease pattern (P
We aimed to discern the relative risk for several chronic inflammatory conditions in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease.
We used the population-based University of Manitoba IBD Database that includes longitudinal files on all patients from all health system contacts identified by International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification codes for visit diagnosis. From the provincial database we extracted a control cohort matching the IBD patients 10:1 by age, sex, and geography. We considered a potential comorbid disease to be present if the patient had 5 or more health system contacts for that diagnosis. The comorbid disease period prevalence was analyzed separately for patients with UC and Crohn's disease and a prevalence ratio was calculated comparing the IBD populations with the matched cohort.
There were 8072 cases of IBD from 1984 to 2003, including UC (n = 3879) and Crohn's disease (n = 4193). There was a mean of approximately 16 person-years of coverage for both patients and control patients. Both UC and Crohn's disease patients had a significantly greater likelihood of having arthritis, asthma, bronchitis, psoriasis, and pericarditis than population controls. An increased risk for chronic renal disease and multiple sclerosis was noted in UC but not Crohn's disease patients. The most common nonintestinal comorbidities identified were arthritis and asthma.
The finding of asthma as the most common comorbidity increased in Crohn's disease patients compared with the general population is novel. These may be diseases with common causes or complications of one disease that lead to the presentation with another. Studies such as this should encourage further research into the common triggers in the organ systems that lead to autoimmune diseases.