Skip header and navigation

Refine By

31 records – page 1 of 4.

Assessment of human hair as an indicator of exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. Case study on a Norwegian mother-child cohort.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature271520
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Oct;83:50-7
Publication Type
Article
Date
Oct-2015
Author
Agnieszka Kucharska
Enrique Cequier
Cathrine Thomsen
Georg Becher
Adrian Covaci
Stefan Voorspoels
Source
Environ Int. 2015 Oct;83:50-7
Date
Oct-2015
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Air Pollutants - metabolism
Child
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Hair - chemistry
Humans
Male
Maternal Exposure
Middle Aged
Norway
Organophosphates - metabolism
Abstract
A major challenge of non-invasive human biomonitoring using hair is to assess whether it can be used as an indicator of exposure to Flame Retardants, such as Organophosphate Flame Retardants (PFRs), since the contribution of atmospheric deposition (air and/or dust) cannot be neglected. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of using human hair more thoroughly by comparison of (i) levels of PFRs in human hair (from 48 mothers and 54 children), with levels measured in dust and air in their respective households; and (ii) levels of selected PFRs in hair with the levels of corresponding PFR metabolites in matching urine samples collected simultaneously. Most PFRs (tri-n-butyl phosphate (TNBP), 2-ethyl-hexyldiphenyl phosphate (EHDPHP), tri-phenyl phosphate (TPHP), tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TIBP), and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP)) were detected in all human hair samples, tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-iso-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) in 93%, tri-cresyl-phosphate (TCP) in 69% and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP) in 21% of the samples. Levels of individual PFRs ranged between
PubMed ID
26081984 View in PubMed
Less detail

Association between perfluoroalkyl substances and thyroid stimulating hormone among pregnant women: a cross-sectional study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature107424
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12(1):76
Publication Type
Article
Date
2013
Author
Yan Wang
Anne P Starling
Line S Haug
Merete Eggesbo
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Gregory Travlos
Debra King
Jane A Hoppin
Walter J Rogan
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Durham, NC, USA. wangy13@niehs.nih.gov.
Source
Environ Health. 2013;12(1):76
Date
2013
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Alkanes - blood
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Cross-Sectional Studies
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Fluorocarbons - blood
Humans
Immunoassay
Linear Models
Norway
Odds Ratio
Pregnancy
Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Thyrotropin - blood
Young Adult
Abstract
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are a group of highly persistent chemicals that are widespread contaminants in wildlife and humans. Exposure to PFAS affects thyroid homeostasis in experimental animals and possibly in humans. The objective of this study was to examine the association between plasma concentrations of PFASs and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) among pregnant women.
A total of 903 pregnant women who enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study from 2003 to 2004 were studied. Concentrations of thirteen PFASs and TSH were measured in plasma samples collected around the 18th week of gestation. Linear regression models were used to evaluate associations between PFASs and TSH.
Among the thirteen PFASs, seven were detected in more than 60% of samples and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) had the highest concentrations (median, 12.8 ng/mL; inter-quartile range [IQR], 10.1 -16.5 ng/mL). The median TSH concentration was 3.5 (IQR, 2.4 - 4.8) µIU/mL. Pregnant women with higher PFOS had higher TSH levels. After adjustment, with each 1 ng/mL increase in PFOS concentration, there was a 0.8% (95% confidence interval: 0.1%, 1.6%) rise in TSH. The odds ratio of having an abnormally high TSH, however, was not increased, and other PFASs were unrelated to TSH.
Our results suggest an association between PFOS and TSH in pregnant women that is small and may be of no clinical significance.
Notes
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Nov;85(11):3975-8711095417
Cites: Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2010 Feb;281(2):215-2019437026
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 1;35(7):1339-4211348064
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Dec;109(12):1275-8311748036
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2003 Aug;74(2):382-9212773772
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2003 Aug;74(2):369-8112773773
Cites: Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1984 Dec;4(6):972-66519377
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1989 Jul 6;321(1):13-62733742
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1993 Dec;77(6):1719-228263162
Cites: Thyroid. 1994 Spring;4(1):107-288054857
Cites: Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1997 Mar;40(1):16-319103947
Cites: Thyroid. 2004 Dec;14(12):1084-9015650363
Cites: Thyroid. 2005 Jan;15(1):44-5315687823
Cites: Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Nov;63(5):560-516268809
Cites: J Occup Environ Med. 2006 Aug;48(8):771-916902369
Cites: Eur J Epidemiol. 2006;21(8):619-2517031521
Cites: Int J Epidemiol. 2006 Oct;35(5):1146-5016926217
Cites: Epidemiology. 2007 Jul;18(4):441-517473707
Cites: Ther Drug Monit. 2007 Oct;29(5):553-917898643
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2007 Nov 15;41(22):7928-3318075110
Cites: Toxicology. 2008 Jan 20;243(3):330-918063289
Cites: Endocr Pract. 2008 Jan-Feb;14(1):33-918238739
Cites: J Chromatogr A. 2009 Jan 16;1216(3):385-9319026423
Cites: Clin Biochem. 2009 May;42(7-8):750-319124013
Cites: Reprod Toxicol. 2009 Jun;27(3-4):387-9919429409
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2009 Jun;109(2):206-1619293372
Cites: Environ Toxicol Chem. 2009 May;28(5):990-619045937
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Sep;117(9):1380-619750101
Cites: Physiol Behav. 2010 Feb 9;99(2):240-519419669
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):686-9220089479
Cites: Environ Int. 2010 Oct;36(7):772-820579735
Cites: Endocr Rev. 2010 Oct;31(5):702-5520573783
Cites: Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Nov;398(6):2413-2720680618
Cites: Eur J Endocrinol. 2011 Jan;164(1):101-520930062
Cites: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2011 Apr;90(4):390-721306337
Cites: Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-9321334069
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Apr;119(4):573-821062688
Cites: Environ Res. 2011 May;111(4):559-6421310403
Cites: J Toxicol Sci. 2011 Aug;36(4):403-1021804304
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Sep 1;45(17):7465-7221805959
Cites: J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011 Oct;127(1-2):16-2621397692
Cites: Epidemiology. 2012 Mar;23(2):257-6322081060
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Oct;120(10):1432-722935244
Cites: J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013;76(1):25-5723151209
Cites: J Hazard Mater. 2013 Jan 15;244-245:637-4423177245
Cites: Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2009 Nov;23(6):597-60819840297
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2001 Apr 1;35(7):154A-160A11348100
PubMed ID
24010716 View in PubMed
Less detail

Associations between brominated flame retardants in human milk and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in neonates.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature134309
Source
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):737-43
Publication Type
Article
Date
Aug-2011
Author
Merete Eggesbø
Cathrine Thomsen
Jens V Jørgensen
Georg Becher
Jon Øyvind Odland
Matthew P Longnecker
Author Affiliation
Department of Genes and Environment, Division of Epidemiology, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo, Norway. merete.eggesbo@fhi.no
Source
Environ Res. 2011 Aug;111(6):737-43
Date
Aug-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Cohort Studies
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Maternal Exposure
Milk, human - chemistry
Norway - epidemiology
Thyrotropin - blood - drug effects
Abstract
Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been in widespread use in a vast array of consumer products since the 1970s. The metabolites of some BFRs show a structural similarity to thyroid hormones and experimental animal studies have confirmed that they may interfere with thyroid hormone homeostasis. A major concern has been whether intrauterine exposure to BFRs may disturb thyroid homeostasis since the fetal brain is particularly susceptible to alterations in thyroid hormones. However, few reports on newborns have been published to date.
To evaluate the association between BFRs and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).
We studied six polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) measured in milk samples from 239 women who were part of the "Norwegian Human Milk Study" (HUMIS), 2003-2006. Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and BDE-209 were measured in a subset of the women (193 and 46 milk samples, respectively). The milk was sampled at a median of 33 days after delivery. TSH was measured in babies three days after delivery as part of the routine national screening program for early detection of congenital hypothyroidism. Additional information was obtained through the Medical Birth Registry and questionnaires to the mothers.
The PBDE concentrations in human milk in Norway were comparable to concentrations reported from other European countries and Asia, but not the US and Canada where levels are approximately one order of higher magnitude. We observed no statistically significant associations between BDE-47, 99, 153, 154, 209 and HBCD in human milk and TSH in models adjusted for possible confounders and other environmental toxicants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).
We did not observe an association between TSH and exposure to HBCD and PBDEs within the exposure levels observed.
Notes
Cites: Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2000 Jun;79(6):440-910857867
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Oct;116(10):1376-8218941581
Cites: Arch Toxicol. 2001 Jun;75(4):200-811482517
Cites: Pediatrics. 2002 Feb;109(2):222-711826199
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2002 May;67(1):98-10311961221
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1235-4112842779
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Jul;111(9):1249-5212842781
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2003 Nov;76(1):112-2012915714
Cites: J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2003 Oct-Nov;16(8):1131-514594173
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2004 Mar;78(1):144-5514999130
Cites: J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2824-3115181064
Cites: Thyroid. 2004 Jun;14(6):435-4215242570
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2004 Oct;81(2):491-50115254340
Cites: Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 1990 Sep-Oct;19(5):640-52122815
Cites: Thyroid. 1994 Spring;4(1):107-288054857
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 1994 Jun;102 Suppl 2:125-307925183
Cites: N Engl J Med. 1999 Aug 19;341(8):549-5510451459
Cites: Eur J Endocrinol. 2004 Nov;151 Suppl 3:U25-3715554884
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2009 Aug 1;407(16):4584-9019457543
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Sep;117(9):1380-619750101
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2008 Dec;116(12):1635-4119079713
Cites: Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009 Mar;212(2):109-3418554980
Cites: Sci Total Environ. 2009 May 1;407(10):3425-919211133
Cites: Environ Res. 2009 Jul;109(5):559-6619410245
Cites: Environ Int. 2010 Jan;36(1):68-7419889457
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2009 Dec;117(12):1953-820049217
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jan;118(1):155-6020056574
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 May;118(5):712-920056561
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Oct;118(10):1444-920562054
Cites: Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005 Aug;78(7):584-9215902483
Cites: Chemosphere. 2006 Jun;64(2):181-616434082
Cites: Environ Sci Technol. 2006 Jun 15;40(12):3679-8816830527
Cites: Toxicol Sci. 2006 Dec;94(2):281-9216984958
Cites: J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2007 Feb 1;846(1-2):252-6317023223
Cites: J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2007 Jun;20(6):473-617674257
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Sep;115(9):1271-517805415
Cites: Environ Health Perspect. 2007 Oct;115(10):1490-617938741
Cites: Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008 Feb 1;226(3):244-5017964624
Cites: Mol Nutr Food Res. 2008 Feb;52(2):187-9318186105
Cites: Thyroid. 2008 Jan;18(1):67-7618302520
Cites: Int J Androl. 2008 Apr;31(2):152-6018315715
Cites: Chemosphere. 2008 Oct;73(6):907-1418718632
Cites: Arch Environ Health. 2001 Mar-Apr;56(2):138-4311339677
PubMed ID
21601188 View in PubMed
Less detail

Brominated flame retardants in archived serum samples from Norway: a study on temporal trends and the role of age.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature31584
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-1-2002
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Elsa Lundanes
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
National Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@folkehelsa.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2002 Apr 1;36(7):1414-8
Date
Apr-1-2002
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adolescent
Adult
Age Factors
Aged
Body Burden
Bromine Compounds - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Child
Child, Preschool
Environmental Exposure
Female
Flame Retardants - analysis - pharmacokinetics
Humans
Infant
Infant, Newborn
Male
Mass Fragmentography
Middle Aged
Norway
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Sex Factors
Time Factors
Abstract
The temporal trends and influence of age and gender on levels of selected brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in human serum have been assessed by analyzing archived samples from Norway. Serum from 40 to 50 year old men collected at six time periods during 1977 to 1999 and from eight groups of differing age and gender sampled in 1998 were pooled into six and eight samples, respectively. The BFRs were isolated using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the serum lipids decomposed bytreatmentwith concentrated sulfuric acid directly on the polystyrene-divinylbenzene SPE column, prior to elution of the BFRs. Following diazomethane derivatization, the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-electron capture mass spectrometry. Eight BFRs were quantified in the serum samples: 2,4,4'-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), 2,2',4,4',5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2',4,4',6-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), 2,2',4,4',5,6'-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-154), 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A). The serum concentrations of all the BFRs, increased during the entire period with the exception of TriBP, and the sum of the six polybrominated diphenyl ethers increased from 0.44 ng/g lipids in 1977 to 3.3 ng/g lipids in 1999. The BFR concentrations in the serum from the different age groups were relatively similar, except for the age group 0-4 years, which had 1.6-3.5 times higher serum concentrations. Women older than 25 years had lower serum concentrations of BFRs compared to the corresponding group of men. No trend related to age or gender, nor time during the period 1977 to 1999 was observed for TriBP. The present study indicates an ongoing increase in human exposure to BFRs, and the current body burden appears to be independent of age, except for infants (0-4 years old), who seem to experience elevated exposure.
Notes
Comment In: Environ Sci Technol. 2002 May 1;36(9):188A-192A12026967
PubMed ID
11999045 View in PubMed
Less detail

Changes in concentrations of perfluorinated compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast-milk during twelve months of lactation.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature139175
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Dec 15;44(24):9550-6
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-15-2010
Author
Cathrine Thomsen
Line S Haug
Hein Stigum
May Frøshaug
Sharon L Broadwell
Georg Becher
Author Affiliation
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. cathrine.thomsen@fhi.no
Source
Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Dec 15;44(24):9550-6
Date
Dec-15-2010
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Alkanesulfonic Acids - metabolism
Breast Feeding
Caprylates - metabolism
Environmental monitoring
Environmental Pollutants - metabolism
Female
Fluorocarbons - metabolism
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Fluorinated - metabolism
Maternal Exposure - statistics & numerical data
Milk, Human - metabolism
Mothers
Norway
Polychlorinated Biphenyls - metabolism
Abstract
At present, scientific knowledge on depuration rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is limited and the previous assumptions of considerable reduction of body burdens through breast-feeding have recently been challenged. We therefore studied elimination rates of important POPs in nine Norwegian primiparous mothers and one mother breast-feeding her second child by collecting breast-milk samples (n = 70) monthly from about two weeks to up to twelve months after birth. Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in the breast-milk samples. Linear mixed effect models were established for selected compounds, and significant decreases in the range of 1.2-4.7% in breast-milk concentrations per month were observed for a wide range of PCBs and PBDEs. For the first time, depuration rates for perfluorooctylsulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) are presented, being 3.8 and 7.8% per month, respectively (p
Notes
Erratum In: Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Apr 1;45(7):3192
PubMed ID
21090747 View in PubMed
Less detail

Characterisation of human exposure pathways to perfluorinated compounds--comparing exposure estimates with biomarkers of exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature136887
Source
Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-93
Publication Type
Article
Date
May-2011
Author
Line S Haug
Sandra Huber
Georg Becher
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, NO-0403 Oslo, Norway. line.smastuen.haug@fhi.no
Source
Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):687-93
Date
May-2011
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Air Pollutants - analysis - blood - metabolism
Air Pollution - statistics & numerical data
Air Pollution, Indoor - statistics & numerical data
Alkanesulfonic Acids - analysis - blood - metabolism
Caprylates - analysis - blood - metabolism
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Female
Fluorocarbons - analysis - blood - metabolism
Humans
Infant
Milk, Human - metabolism
Norway
Abstract
Commercially used per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely detected in humans, but the sources of human exposure are not fully characterized. The objectives of this study were to assess the relative importance of different exposure pathways of PFCs in a group of Norwegians and compare estimated intakes with internal doses obtained through biomonitoring. Individual PFC intakes from multiple exposure sources for a study group of 41 Norwegian women were estimated using measured PFC concentrations in indoor air and house dust as well as information from food frequency questionnaires and PFC concentrations in Norwegian food. Food was generally the major exposure source, representing 67-84% of the median total intake for PFOA and 88-99% for PFOS using different dust ingestion rates and biotransformation factors of 'precursor' compounds. However, on an individual basis, the indoor environment accounted for up to around 50% of the total intake for several women. Significant positive associations between concentrations of PFCs in house dust and the corresponding serum concentrations underline the importance of indoor environment as an exposure pathway for PFCs. For breast-fed infants, breast milk was calculated to be the single most important source to PFCs by far. The estimated intakes were confirmed by comparing serum concentrations of PFOA and PFOS calculated using PK models, with the corresponding concentrations measured in serum. Even though food in general is the major source of exposure for PFCs, the indoor environment may be an important contributor to human exposure. This study provides valuable knowledge for risk assessment of PFCs and control strategies.
PubMed ID
21334069 View in PubMed
Less detail

Concentrations of brominated and phosphorous flame retardants in Finnish house dust and insights into children's exposure.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature299567
Source
Chemosphere. 2019 May; 223:99-107
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
May-2019
Author
Panu Rantakokko
Eva Kumar
Joris Braber
Taya Huang
Hannu Kiviranta
Enrique Cequier
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
National Institute for Health and Welfare, Environmental Health Unit, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701, Kuopio, Finland. Electronic address: panu.rantakokko@thl.fi.
Source
Chemosphere. 2019 May; 223:99-107
Date
May-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis
Child, Preschool
Dust - analysis
Environmental Exposure - adverse effects
Finland
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers
Halogenation
Humans
Organophosphates
Organophosphorus Compounds
Phosphorus
Abstract
Brominated and phosphorous flame retardants (BFRs, PFRs) are added to household and consumer products to reduce their flammability. Some FRs are persistent in the environment and may have adverse health effects. As exposure indoors contributes significantly to total exposure, we wanted to estimate the exposure of children (3 years of age) through dust ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. We measured 17 BFRs and 10 PFRs in indoor dust, predicted their respective concentrations in the indoor air and assessed children's exposure. Among the BFRs, decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) had highest median level in the dust (411?ng/g) followed by decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE, 119?ng/g) and bis-ethylhexyl tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP, 106?ng/g). Among the PFRs, trisbutoxyethyl phosphate (TBOEP) had the highest concentration (11100?ng/g) followed by tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP, 1870?ng/g) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP, 773?ng/g). FR concentration in air predicted from dust concentrations were within the interquartile range of experimental data for 10/13 of BFRs and 4/8 of PFRs compared. Dust ingestion was the major route of exposure (75-99%) for higher molecular weight BFRs, TBOEP and phenyl based PFRs (73-77%). Inhalation was important for volatile BFRs like pentabromobenzene (PBB 71%) and pentabromotoluene (PBT 52%) and dermal exposure for volatile chlorinated PFRs (TCEP 84%, TCIPP 77%). Margins of Exposure (MoE) were calculated as the ratio of total exposure to oral Reference Dose (RfD). MoEs were lowest for TCEP (220), TBOEP (240) and TCIPP (830), and > 1000 for all other FRs. These MoEs imply no risk for Finnish children by the studied FRs.
PubMed ID
30771653 View in PubMed
Less detail

Concentrations of phthalates and bisphenol A in Norwegian foods and beverages and estimated dietary exposure in adults.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature259320
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:259-69
Publication Type
Article
Date
Dec-2014
Author
Amrit K Sakhi
Inger Therese L Lillegaard
Stefan Voorspoels
Monica H Carlsen
Elin B Løken
Anne L Brantsæter
Margaretha Haugen
Helle M Meltzer
Cathrine Thomsen
Source
Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:259-69
Date
Dec-2014
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Adult
Benzhydryl Compounds - analysis
Beverages - analysis
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Food analysis
Humans
Norway
Phenols - analysis
Phthalic Acids - analysis
Plasticizers - analysis
Abstract
Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are ubiquitous in our environment. These chemicals have been characterized as endocrine disruptors that can cause functional impairment of development and reproduction. Processed and packaged foods are among the major sources of human exposure to these chemicals. No previous report showing the levels of these chemicals in food items purchased in Norway is available. The aim of the present study was to determine the concentration of ten different phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages purchased on the Norwegian market and estimate the daily dietary exposure in the Norwegian adult population. Commonly consumed foods and beverages in Norway were purchased in a grocery store and analysed using gas- and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Daily dietary exposures to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population were estimated using the latest National dietary survey, Norkost 3 (2010-2011). This study showed that phthalates and BPA are found in all foods and beverages that are common to consume in Norway. The detection frequency of phthalates in the food items varied from 11% for dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) to 84% for di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), one of the substitutes for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). BPA was found in 54% of the food items analysed. Among the different phthalates, the highest concentrations were found for DEHP and DiNP in the food items. Estimated dietary exposures were also equally high and dominated by DEHP and DiNP (400-500 ng/kg body weight (bw)/day), followed by di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP) (30-40 ng/kg bw/day). Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethylphthalate (DEP) and DCHP had the lowest concentrations and the exposures were around 10-20 ng/kg bw/day. Estimated dietary exposure to BPA was 5 ng/kg bw/day. In general, levels of phthalates and BPA in foods and beverages from the Norwegian market are comparable to other countries worldwide. Grain and meat products were the major contributors of exposure to these chemicals in the Norwegian adult population. The estimated dietary exposures to these chemicals were considerably lower than their respective tolerable daily intake (TDI) values established by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA).
PubMed ID
25173060 View in PubMed
Less detail

Concentrations of selected chemicals in indoor air from Norwegian homes and schools.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature300015
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15; 674:1-8
Publication Type
Journal Article
Date
Jul-15-2019
Author
Amrit Kaur Sakhi
Enrique Cequier
Rune Becher
Anette Kocbach Bølling
Anders R Borgen
Martin Schlabach
Norbert Schmidbauer
Georg Becher
Per Schwarze
Cathrine Thomsen
Author Affiliation
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, PO Box 222, Skøyen, N-0213 Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: amrit.sakhi@fhi.no.
Source
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jul 15; 674:1-8
Date
Jul-15-2019
Language
English
Publication Type
Journal Article
Keywords
Air Pollutants - analysis
Air Pollution, Indoor - analysis - statistics & numerical data
Dust - analysis
Environmental monitoring
Flame Retardants - analysis
Halogenated Diphenyl Ethers - analysis
Housing - statistics & numerical data
Humans
Norway
Paraffin - analysis
Phthalic Acids
Polychlorinated biphenyls - analysis
Schools - statistics & numerical data
Abstract
Both building materials and consumer products have been identified as possible sources for potentially hazardous substances like phthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor air. Thus, indoor air has been suggested to contribute significantly to human exposure to these chemicals. There is lack of data on the occurrence of several of the aforementioned chemicals in indoor air. Therefore, indoor air (gas and particulate phase) was collected from 48 households and 6 classrooms in two counties in Norway. In both the households and schools, median levels of low molecular weight phthalates (785?ng/m3), OPFRs (55?ng/m3) and SCCPs (128?ng/m3) were up to 1000 times higher than the levels of PCBs (829?pg/m3) and PBDEs (167?pg/m3). Median concentrations of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP) and SCCPs were 3-6 times higher in households compared to schools. The levels of OPFRs, PCBs and PBDEs were similar in households and schools. In univariate analysis, the indoor concentrations of different environmental chemicals were significantly affected by location of households (OPFRs), airing of living room (some PCBs and PBDEs), presence of upholstered chair/couch (OPFRs), pet animal hold (some PBDEs) and presence of electrical heaters (selected PCBs and PBDEs). Significant correlations were also detected for the total size of households with OPFRs, frequency of vacuuming the living room with selected PCBs and PBDEs, frequency of washing the living room with selected PCBs and the total number of TVs in the households with selected phthalates and SCCPs. Finally, intake estimates indicated that indoor air contributed more or equally to low molecular weight phthalates and SCCPs exposure compared to food consumption, whereas the contribution from indoor air was smaller than the dietary intake for the other groups of chemicals.
PubMed ID
31003082 View in PubMed
Less detail

Determinants of plasma PCB, brominated flame retardants, and organochlorine pesticides in pregnant women and 3 year old children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

https://arctichealth.org/en/permalink/ahliterature273849
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Publication Type
Article
Date
Apr-2016
Author
Ida Henriette Caspersen
Helen Engelstad Kvalem
Margaretha Haugen
Anne Lise Brantsæter
Helle Margrete Meltzer
Jan Alexander
Cathrine Thomsen
May Frøshaug
Nanna Margrethe Bruun Bremnes
Sharon Lynn Broadwell
Berit Granum
Manolis Kogevinas
Helle Katrine Knutsen
Source
Environ Res. 2016 Apr;146:136-44
Date
Apr-2016
Language
English
Publication Type
Article
Keywords
Child, Preschool
Cohort Studies
Demography
Diet
Environmental Exposure
Environmental monitoring
Environmental pollutants - blood
Female
Flame Retardants - metabolism
Humans
Hydrocarbons, Brominated - blood
Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated - blood
Life Style
Norway
Pesticides - blood
Polybrominated Biphenyls - blood
Polychlorinated biphenyls - blood
Pregnancy
Abstract
Exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) during prenatal and postnatal life has been extensively studied in relation to adverse health effects in children.
The aim was to identify determinants of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs; polybrominated biphenyl, PBB), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in blood samples from pregnant women and children in The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa).
Blood samples were collected from two independent subsamples within MoBa; a group of women (n=96) enrolled in mid-pregnancy during the years 2002-2008 and a group of 3 year old children (n=99) participating during 2010-2011. PCB congeners (74, 99, 138, 153, 180, 170, 194, 209, 105, 114, 118, 156, 157, 167, and 189), brominated flame retardants (PBDE-28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154, and PBB-153), as well as the OCPs hexachlorobenzene (HCB), oxychlordane, 4,4'dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and 4,4'dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were measured in both pregnant women and children.
Age, low parity, and low pre-pregnant BMI were the most important determinants of increased plasma concentrations of POPs in pregnant women. In 3 year old children, prolonged breastfeeding duration was a major determinant of increased POP concentrations. Estimated dietary exposure to PCBs during pregnancy was positively associated with plasma concentrations in 3 year old children, but not in pregnant women. Plasma concentrations were approximately 40% higher in children compared to pregnant women.
Several factors associated with exposure and toxicokinetics, i.e. accumulation, excretion and transfer via breastmilk of POPs were the main predictors of POP levels in pregnant women and children. Diet, which is the main exposure source for these compounds in the general population, was found to predict PCB levels only among children. For the PBDEs, for which non-dietary sources are more important, toxicokinetic factors appeared to have less predictive impact.
PubMed ID
26749444 View in PubMed
Less detail

31 records – page 1 of 4.